Archive for February, 2013

Christianity

Posted in Religions with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 28, 2013 by Drogo

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Christianity began as a small radical Jewish sect that worshiped the prophet Jesus as the Son of God. The secretive cult of Christianity grew as a religious passive-resistance movement within the Pagan Roman Empire. Among many other messiah prophets, Jesus (0-32 AD) was claimed to be the Christ Messiah mentioned in Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament), and brought a New Testament by supposedly identifying himself as the loving Son of God the Father. His main messages were to give away or share most of your possessions, live in humble communes, worship only God, love all, and give your money to the government (Caesar unto Caesar). Like other political-religious rebel leaders, he was crucified by the Romans; but his followers were fanatical, and they created quite a story around him, even after he was dead. The main books of the New Testament were written by disciples of apostles: Paul (60 AD letters – never met Jesus), Mark (70 AD gospel- not an apostle, but was disciple of Peter), Matthew (85 AD gospel- actual apostle’s disciples), Luke (90 AD gospel- not an apostle, but friend of Paul), John (100 AD gospel- claims to be son of Zebedee but would have been about 100). Some missing gospels are included towards the end of this summary.*

The story and parables of Jesus were dictated by apostles, to their disciples, and proselytized until there was a cult following. The most influential apostle was a critical convert named Paul, even though he never met Jesus when he was alive. Peter was closest to Jesus, but the apostles that knew Jesus did not have books recorded until generations after Jesus died. This gap gave them time to get their stories straight, and get more fans. Some of the apostles wanted others to believe that Jesus was the physical incarnation of God. The Holy Spirit of God works with God (the only true god), who was the Father of Jesus Christ, and this forms the Divine Trinity. If you did not believe the New Testament, they wanted to make it clear that you would go to Hell and burn forever. Salvation for your sins was now only possible through Christian prayer, under the direction of Church Basilica leaders.

The cult of Christ made it big when Emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. In the Dark Ages the Roman Church doctrines were made to centralize authority. Apostles’ Creed: (200 AD) The mandatory paradoxical literal belief in selected testaments, primarily the Trinity, the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ, the divine authority of the holy Church, Christ’s second coming, Day of Judgment and Salvation of the faithful. Even worship of saints. Nicene Creed: (400 AD) wanted to emphasize some additional points: Jesus was born from Virgin Mary, and only one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. King Charlemagne was one of the first on record to kill in the name of Christ. By the Middle-Ages the Church, its priests, and nobles became the judges of sin, and were well on their way to murdering millions in the name of Christ. The Crusades, the Inquisition, mission conversion, the burning times, the hanging times, and Manifest Destiny all became important parts of the Christian legacy.

The three largest worldwide systems of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Protestant denominations. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox split during the East–West Schism of 1054 AD. The Protestant Reformation, led by Martin Luther, split from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Christianity continues to evolve and remain popular, as it struggles to adapt to modern times. New Age ethics, scientific discoveries, and technologies challenge the existence of religions with stagnant traditional moral doctrines; and despite Christianity being one of the newer religions, even it has as hard a time seeing the writing on the walls as any of the older religions sometimes.

Christian Biblical Commandments

The Greatest Commandment for Christians is the Golden Rule, it is referenced by Jesus in the New Testament several times:

“Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.” – Leviticus 19:18 Torah

Jesus was saying that to Love God is to love your neighbor. In a way the Golden Rule sums up the 10 Commandments:

“So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you; for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.” – Matthew 7:12

In fact Jesus expanded the definition of neighbor to mean all of humanity, even your enemy. Jesus tells the parable of the Good Samaritan, making it clear that “your neighbor” means any other person. It is important to note that Samaritans were despised by the story’s target audience, the Jews. The Samaritans were also largely taught to hate Jews. Thus the parable, as told originally, had a significant theme of non-discrimination and interracial harmony.

“Love Your Enemies. If anyone hits you on the cheek, offer the other also. And if anyone takes your coat, don’t hold back your shirt. Give to everyone who asks from you, and takes away your things; don’t ask for them back. Just as you want others to do for you, do the same for them.” – Luke 6:27

Although Christianity introduced more peaceful teachings than those in the Old Testament, God became a triple god (son-youth, father-adulthood, ghost-death), and added more about Satan, which created even more of schizophrenic dualism. In Christianity Jesus was good, and evil was blamed on the Devil Satan. God continues to allow both good and evil to happen to humans, because of the free-will and sin that he created.

The Book of Revelation (John of Patmos) is an apocalyptic description of a complex series of prophetic events, divined from psychedelic visions. Armageddon, the Four Horsemen, and 340 other apocalyptic metaphors come from 24 books of the Tenak. For example the Beast combines body traits from four beasts mentioned in Daniel 7. John was obsessed with the number 7: 7 churches, 7 spirits, 7 horns, 7 eyes, 7 seals, 7 trumpet blasts…

“To our knowledge Jesus left no written records. … Whatever else the gospels are, they are certainly not the writings of Jesus. It is equally clear that the gospels are not the result of Jesus’ dictation found in the written notes from his disciples.” – Spong, Sins of Scripture

* There were many gospels by other disciples that were omitted for political reasons within the early Church. Many of the rejected gospels contradict the Peter, Paul, and Matthew conspired versions, but were discredited by using slander (as was common practice). The fact that the accepted gospels are similar about the same key points, does not mean that those points are at all historical, in fact the only thing it actually means is that they were pushing a religious-political agenda that they agreed upon, whether it was true or not. It is these other period texts that ask us to rethink the basis for Church authority.

The West Bank Essene Dead Sea Scrolls and other Gnostic Gospels are perhaps more valid than the Bible for understanding the real Jesus. The earliest Gospels of Thomas and Mary show that some apostles did not consider Jesus to be Son of God, they did not witness miracles or resurrection, and they introduce the profound revelation that salvation was an inner spiritual journey. Bishop Marcion rejected the Old Testament God as an inferior deity (circa 150 AD). The later Gospels of Mani (Manichaeism) influenced Christianity, but have since been largely forgotten, labeled heresy, and even considered Satanic.

Satanism – Devil Worship

Originally Satan was the Jewish word for an adversary, so satan was used to refer to any accusers that challenge the heroes in the Torah (God, Eve, Job). Ha-Satan was an arch-angel of the Angelic Council, “Sons of God” who, by the time of Jesus and the Essenes, had been revealed as Lucifer (Morning Star). Lucifer Satan fell from God’s grace, and was condemned to rule over Hell as a devil with god-like powers. Pagan gods were branded as the image of Satan, but ironically Satanism is a product of Christianity. In fact most depictions of Satanism come directly from Christian sources. There are some actual Satanists that exist, and they are divided into theist and atheist churches. Satanists basically believe that God is evil and Satan is good, and so the Bible is a lie.

Monotheist immortal spirits in Christianity: God, Jesus, Satan, angels, demons, prophets, kings, apostles, disciples, sinners

Hebrew Judaism, Abrahamic

Posted in Religions with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 26, 2013 by Drogo

Judaism is the monotheistic religion of Hebrews (Jews), based in their homeland Israel. Abraham and Moses are their most important prophets. Their scriptures include the Tenak, the Mishna, and the Talmud. The ‘TeNaK’ contains: Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim. The Torah begins with Bereshit (Genesis).

In the beginning God created heaven and earth. The earth was formless and empty, and darkness covered the deep water. The Spirit of God was hovering over the water. Then God said, “Let there be light!” So there was light. God saw the light was good. So God separated the light from the darkness. God named light day, and darkness he named night. There was evening, then morning, the first day. On the second day God said “Let there be water and sky.” On the third day God said “Let there be plants and trees; flora.” On the fourth day God said “Let there be more light; stars.” On the fifth day God said “Let there be animals; fauna.” On the sixth day God said “Let humans come and make babies.” On the seventh day God just rested.

Genesis is a narrative antiquarian history with incredible genealogies. It was attributed to Moses (1400 BC). Key personalities include God, Adam, Eve, Satan, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Cane and Able. God gave humans free-will and dominion over the Earth. In return for obedience his chosen ones will be rewarded. Adam and Eve lived blissfully in the paradise of the Garden of Eden, but free-will allowed them to oppose (Satan) the will of God, and so they sinned and messed everything up for everyone. A sin is a religious error; a thought or action that is against or not-with God. Despite humans not living up to God’s standards, he continues to give humanity new chances for success, through prophets. Prophets are usually really intense cult leaders that say crazy things, and sometimes do amazing things (like magic), in the name of God. If the prophet is successful they will become heroes and martyrs, be documented, and gain even more followers for God after death. Sometimes salvation comes during a devout life, but the deal is definitely guaranteed after death, in Heaven.

Seven Noahide Ark Laws against: Idolatry, Murder, Theft, Sexual immorality, Blasphemy, Eating living flesh, and for Courts of law (Genesis)

Seven Fields of Knowledge: medicine, physics, mathematics, art, psychology, sociology, and religion. (7 lights on the Temple Menorah)

10 main Commandments of God 1300 BC – by Moses in Exodus 20 Torah:

1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

2. Thou shalt not make or worship idols.

3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.

4. Remember the sabbath Sunday, to keep it holy.

5. Honor thy father and thy mother.

6. Thou shalt not murder.

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8. Thou shalt not steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s property.

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The Greatest Commandment for Jews (and Christians) is the Golden Rule: “Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.” – Leviticus 19:18 Torah

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Although the Jews have been just as belligerent throughout history, as any other culture has against their neighbors, while reclaiming, defending, and expanding their homeland; Jews have also been perpetually persecuted when they have lived in other countries (Christian). Pagan religions that were victims of such mass holocausts on the scale of Jewish Pogroms went extinct, or their survivors were usually so fragmented and few in number that they became cultural slaves (like Native Americans) to the oppressing authority. So somehow despite persecution by Islamic and Christian cultures, the Jews have survived and thrived. Ironically the Muslim Islamic Quran (Koran) and the Christian Bible both use Hebrew scriptures. Christianity began as a small radical Jewish sect that worshiped a prophet as God. Today the major conflict Israel faces is with their historic neighbors, the Islamic Palestinians.

Temple Menorah

Germanic & Norse (Viking – Asatru)

Posted in Pagan, Religions with tags , , , , , , , , , on February 25, 2013 by Drogo

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All worlds (Ymir) were created in Ginnungagap. Ymir created all other beings, who continue to reshape Ymir. The spine of Ymir is Yggdrasill, and it is fed by Mimir. The first gods were the matriarchal, agrarian Vanir Earth Gods, who were conquered by the patriarchal, warlike Aesir Sky Gods. The Aesir shaped their Golden Hall Valhalla, in Asgard, as a heaven for brave warrior souls who die in Midgard. The souls become einherjar, and prepare for the final war Ragnarok. Ragnarok (like Armageddon-Apocalypse) destroys much and kills many, save for the chosen few, and Midgard will be repopulated by a couple who survive safely inside Yggdrasill. – Scandinavian Eddas (Iceland skaldic Codex Regius 1200s)

Ginnungagap – Void Gap, between fire and ice

Ymir – Nine Realms – High-Worlds: Asgard, Muspell, Alfheim ; Mid-Worlds: Midgard, Vanaheim, Jotun ; Low-Worlds: Svartalf, Niflheim, Hel

Yggdrasill – World Tree Deity (Ash or Yew), cosmic center Irminsul, unites all the worlds, enables reincarnation, and rebirth of humanity

Odin – All Father God, wisdom, magic (Woden, Wodan, Wotan in German)

Thor – Thunder God, lightning, storms, blacksmiths (Thunor – Saxon, Thur – as in Thur’s day)

Loki – Trickster God, offspring: wolf Fenrir, snake Jörmungandr, and Hel.

Baldur – Bold, brave, shining God of Light, or Day (Baldor, Baldr, Baldere, Baldag)

Fenrir – Wolf (Fenris, Fenryr = “fen dweller”, ulfr = “wolf”), son of Loki, destined to kill Odin during Ragnarok, (Freyr brother of Freya)

Freyja – Nature Goddess, animals, wise woman, crone, seer, oracle (Frigg, Freya), heavenly afterlife field Fólkvangr

Wyrd – Fate, destiny, cosmic connection spirit energy, magic word, (weird = supernatural spirit)

Mimir – Water God, river and well of wisdom and memory (mim), life blood of Yggdrasill, created by Fire and Ice mixing in Ginnungagap

valkyries – female spirits who decide which warriors die in battle and which live (angels of battle)

things – assemblies or meetings, covens meeting in groves at a sacred tree

runes – (futhark) alphabet used by Germanic and Norse tribes (100 AD ?), also used in magic and prophesy

Days of the Week named for gods – Tiu’s day (Tyr), Woden’s day (Odin), Thor’s day, Freya’s day ;  [ Website 1;  Website 2 ]

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Vanir: (N)Jord, Freyr, Freya, Vana, Kvasir, Heimdal, Ullr, Gullveig, Heidr, Nanna, Sjofn

Half-blood Vanir / Vanir associated traitors / Vanir Giants, Spirits, or Monsters: Ran, Ltir, Mimir, Fenrir, Skull, Hati, Hel, Alvíss, Vali, valkyrie,Var Saga, Skadi, volva, Syn, Gna, Gef

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Aesir: Odin, Thor, Frigg, Baldr Bragi Forseti Dellingr Hermóðr Höðr Hœnir Lóðurr Loki Meili Móði and Magni , Vili and Vé, Fulla

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High-Worlds:

Asgard – Aesir Kingdom, home of their Great Hall, Valhalla

Alfheim – Elf Realm, home of light elves (alvar)

Muspell – Fire Realm in the South

Mid-Worlds:

Midgard – Manheim, Human Home, man (maor)

Vanaheim – Vanir Kingdom, old Earth deities, Freya’s Fólkvangr (Elysian Field)

Jotunheim – Giant Realm, giants (jotunn)

Low-Worlds:

Svartalf – Dvergar – Dark-Elf Dwarf Realm

Niflheim – Ice Realm, arctic ice and mist in the North

Helheimr – Hel’s Underworld Kingdom in Niflheim, Dead Realm, lost souls (Hell – lowest frozen levels)

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 * caution: this perspective is Vanir biased to counter predominant Aesir biased sources, and all those that seek to diminish the power of the Earth Goddess. Rather than interpreting the facts to perpetuate Aesir patriarchy, I favor the facts that support Vanir matriarchy, which should help bring the Earth back into balance; Sky God + Earth Goddess = Balance. The Vanir took on the name of the Aesir when Freya married Odin, in the patriarchal tradition of those that are conquered.

Powhatan Nation, East Algonquian

Posted in History, Pagan with tags , , , , , , , , , , on February 23, 2013 by Drogo

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Chief Powhatan Wahunsonacock father of Pocahontas; his brother was Chief Opechancanough (Opequon)

Powhatan = waterfall ; king chief ; weroances, or chiefs ; wisakon = bitter medicine spirits ; Quiocosins – holy temples

Powhatan Priest – Uttamatomakkin ; high priest – Mamanatowick ; kwiocosuk – shamans

kwiokos = shamanic minor deity spirits in powerful humans (priests) and other animals

Kwiokosuk = all gods as represented by a council of priests

Great Goddess of the Four Winds – aided spirits to go west in the air after death

Okeus = human war, Justice, Vengeance, & Punishment / Kiwasa

Okeus frowning effigies made of black painted skins stuffed with moss, with hanging chains, pearls, and copper jewelry

Ahone (Rawottonemd) – Great Rabbit Creator Deity, made animals, but humans he kept in a bag for awhile, until later letting them out.

 

Powhatan Chiefdom subtribes: Powhatan, Arrohateck, Appamattuck, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Kecoughtan, and Chiskiack; including bands from Youghtanund, Rappahannocks, Moraughtacund, Weyanoak, Paspahegh, Quiyoughcohannock, Warraskoyack, Chickahominy, Nansemond, immigrant African slaves, and white servants. Some Accawmacke paid tribute from the other side of the Chesapeake Bay. Some Powhatan migrated to the Lenape, in Delaware.

 

Powhatan were polytheists that allowed individuals to choose which gods to emphasize, one denies what another affirms, their pantheon was flexible; with no rigid ritual calendar, but gave offerings for harvests and victories. They regularly bathed in rivers, made circles of tobacco, and worshiped the sun with emphatic noise and gestures. Powhatan made painted carved wood post totems and, and straw stuffed totems, for guarding temples and drawing strength from: dragons (horned serpents), wolves, foxes, bears, cougars, crows, giants. Ordinary Powhatans read omens, used totems, and communicated with spirits directly and daily, medicine priests healed using herbs first and then spirit ceremonies.

 

Powhatan lived in both wigwams and Iroquois-style longhouses. Some Powhatan villages were encircled with vertical log wall palisades. Powhatans wore knee-length fringed skirts and breech-cloths, with leggings, mantles, moccasins, and feather cloaks in Winter. They decorated themselves with bead jewelry, feathers, body paint and tattoos. They wore their hair long, but often had variations like cutting one side, cutting a crest, and binding. They made beads, baskets, dugout canoes by hollowing out large trees, wampum out of white and purple shell beads, and used dogs as pack animals. Powhatan warriors used tomahawks, clubs, shields, bows, and spears. Wampum belts often represented a story. Powhatan women grew corn, squash and beans. Powhatan men hunted for deer, turkeys, and small game; and fished on the shores. Powhatan foods included soup, cornbread, and stews.

 

There were over 10,000 Powhatans in Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607. By 1646, the Powhatan had been largely destroyed by war and foreign diseases. Recently Virginia has recognized eight Powhatan descended tribes with at least 3,000 remaining members. Mattaponi and Pamunkey still retain their reservations from the 17th century and are located in King William County, Virginia. Along with African Americans in Virginia, Native Americans have suffered years of cultural warfare and racism that continues today.

 

There was significant overlap between Algonquian and Iroquois languages, culture, and territory. The Erie Iroquois (Eriechronon) were once a powerful tribe that spread from Lake Erie, down south towards the Cherokee and Tuscarora (Iroquois relatives), and the East-Coast Algonquian. They once lived in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia; but were decimated by war with the neighboring tribes. Erie survivors and their encroached territories were absorbed by other Iroquois tribes (Seneca & Susquehannock). Erielhonan were called the “Cat” or the “Raccoon” people because of their “long tail” which they wore. They lived in long houses in villages enclosed in palisades. Both their ornamental “long tails”, and their architecture were specifically shared by the Powhatan. The Powhatan clearly inherited or adopted those styles from the Erie. The Erie had already dwindled in that region by the 1600s, diminished in national power, and are now lost to history, except for these few details.

Pocahantas

Art Critic Review Theory

Posted in Book Reports, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Film Reviews with tags , , , , , on February 22, 2013 by Drogo

An Ironic Theory of Hypocritical Critics

 

i prefer neutral artistic summary descriptions, as opposed to egotistical and emotionally biased critique reviews that prey upon either positive propaganda or negative flaws; both of which tend to be opinion based and place too much emphasis on hype or complaints. If I am asked my personal opinion, I prefer to be positive.

 

As an artist, i prefer to be compassionate towards other ethical artists. I want to encourage creativity with my words, rather than insult. Art is not simply an industrial product; which is designed by people but for a utilitarian function. Art is personal. Art is also more than entertainment, however that is an opinion based criteria as well.

 

Critics often justify their negativity by saying they are objectively judging a product; however that is hypocrisy even if they could do better themselves (which often they cannot). Perhaps it is we that could do better, that should be considerate to others who at least try to make art. If someone does not like something for some reason that someone else created, they should contemplate their own feelings about it, because that is the real purpose of art, ultimately no matter how much critics bitch.

 

I realize that by stating this theory, I am being hypocritical in this case, in that I am judging harshly the “work” (if we can call it that, its really opinion) of other people; however I believe that they deserve it, especially if they make money putting other people’s work down, or influencing the masses to regard one work above another.

 

I say this as i listen to movie reviews on the radio, thinking, wow these people are talking shit. Heh. Instead of turning the haters off, i think critics like that should get a taste of their own medicine. So ironically i have just written a review of critics. Ok, now I do not want to waste anymore time worrying or whining about whiners that are being uncaring jerks. For all those that control themselves for the most part in order to be neutral or positive, great job and keep up the good work!

 

– Drogo Empedocles

 

ps- artwork meant to offend or depress people deserves its own theory, but regardless we should talk about art as though we are speaking to the artist; and if we are brave enough to challenge them on an emotional level, then we should also be willing to be attacked with emotional bias ourselves; even if we feel that art has already done this to us.

Plant Pot Seeds – Write State Reps!

Posted in Legal / Laws, Organic Agriculture & Horticulture with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 22, 2013 by Drogo

Intending fair use, here is a proposed letter to send to your state representatives:

 

“Never in modern history has there existed greater public support for ending the nation’s nearly century-long experiment with marijuana prohibition and replacing it with regulation. The historic votes on Election Day in Colorado and Washington – where, for the first time ever, a majority of voters decided at the ballot box to abolish cannabis prohibition – underscore this political reality.

The ongoing enforcement of cannabis prohibition financially burdens taxpayers, encroaches upon civil liberties, engenders disrespect for the law, impedes legitimate scientific research into the plant’s medicinal properties, and disproportionately impacts communities of color. Furthermore, the criminalization of cannabis simply doesn’t work.

Despite more than 70 years of federal marijuana prohibition, Americans’ consumption of and demand for cannabis is here to stay. It is time for state lawmakers to acknowledge this reality. It is time to stop ceding control of the marijuana market to untaxed criminal enterprises and it is time for lawmakers to impose common-sense regulations governing cannabis’ personal use by adults and licensing its production. A pragmatic regulatory framework that allows for limited, licensed production and sale of cannabis to adults – but restricts use among young people – best reduces the risks associated with its use or abuse. I encourage you to support our movement to regulate marijuana, not criminalize it. ”

 

–  modified quote from the NORML website, to help the movement to legalize Cannabis (Marijuana).

US Man

African / Egyptian Origin Stories Summary

Posted in Pagan, Religions with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 22, 2013 by Drogo

The African Continent is our birth place, and oldest known homeland. In Africa the earliest humans first began worshiping spirit deities (between 7,000,000-100,000 BC). Early tribes were all hunters and gatherers, until domesticated animals and agriculture sometime after the Ice Ages (10,000 BC). It is the largest continent, with 5 major regions, and 54 countries. The earliest African written records come from Egypt in North Africa (3,300 BC). Bantu languages spread from West-Central Africa to Swahili East-South Africa (1000 BC – 500 AD). In South Africa the San tribe lived there before the Zulu. West Africa had the Akan, Edo, Yoruba and Igbo tribes. According to statistics, Abrahamic religions dominate modern Africa; yet an indigenous religious foundation remains, passed down orally for generations, to be practiced today, and forever. Tribal African mythologies are an eternal human heritage.

 

Egyptian, North Africa

Tomb hieroglyphics, images, and writings (2780–2250 BC) tell of many creator gods and various legends. The World of Egypt was created in diverse ways according to different areas. The World emerged from an infinite, lifeless Sea when the Sun rose for the first time. Different myths attributed the creation to different gods: the primordial Ogdoad Eight, the self-engendered God Atum, his offspring the contemplative Ptah, and the mysterious, transcendent God Amun.

Egyptian history begins with the first man (Phoroneus) and woman (Niobe), and after the Deluge with Deucalion and Pyrrha.

Niger River Bantu, Ivory Coast Akan, West Africa

The terracotta Nok culture (1000 BC – 200 AD), evolved into Yoruba. Olorun created human destiny (Ayanmo), and physical reality (Aye). Humans pray to their connected spirits (Ori-Orun-Inu), and reincarnate, to eventually return to Olorun’s Spirit Realm (Orun-Rere). Those who lose their way are in the ethereal Realm of Broken Pottery-Shards (Orun-Apadi). Akan traditions stress living in harmony with the Universe. Universal Harmony can be preserved by maintaining proper relationships with all beings in daily life. Akan pantheism includes a creator deity (Nyame), local spirits (abosom), and ancestor spirits (samanfo). Akan prefer to pray using fetishes (suman) to the lesser deity spirits, regarding luck. Human souls have three aspects: immortality, personality, and matrilineage.

 

Kuba (Bushongo) of Congo Zaire, Central Africa

Mother Earth and her husband, Heaven, were created by the creator deity, Mbomba. The couple used to live together, but after a terrible fight Heaven left Earth and they have been apart ever since. Goddess of Lightning caused trouble on Earth, so she was sent back to the Sky. She occasionally returns to bring fire to the Earth.

 

Kenya, East Africa

The god of the Akamba people is the Strong Lord. He is a merciful King of spirits. Strong Lord helps humans occasionally with consolation and sustenance. But he is also a god of judgment and vengeance. Distributor Asa Mwatuangi. Creator Mulungu. Fashioner Mumbi.

 

Zulu, South Africa

Zulu religion has many deities associated with animals or natural phenomena. Unkulunkulu (Greatest One) is the Creator God of humanity. He was created in the reeds of Swamp World Uhlanga, before he came to Earth. Sky Father Umvelinqangi (First One) is god of thunder and earthquakes. River-Snake Goddess Mamlambo is deadly. Nomkhumbulwane is goddess of rainbows, agriculture, rains, and ale.

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