Archive for the Languages Category

SCOD Urban Architecture Notes

Posted in Alternative Architecture, Book Reports, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Historic Architecture, Languages, Politics, Pub Library, Recommendations & Tributes, SCOD Online School, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 17, 2020 by Drogo

American architecture has ‘plurality and duality’. We have a variety of expression with scales of space and attitude, for the rich and poor. We have a modern design duality of rectilinear and organic architecture. Rectilinear modernists have been influenced by: Gropius, Loos, Corbu, Mies, Meier, Kahn, and Johnson. Organic modernist heroes are fewer, and there are fewer of us: Wright, Moss, Gehry, Solari, and Predock.

New Urbanist sprawl still faces the problems of commercialism vs community. Their planning principles have helped us to have more mixed-use zoning, but we still have the problems of Capitalism in decline, with an expanding lower class, destroyed middle class, and imperial upper class. New developments in Maryland and West Virginia seem to ignore the problems of population debt infrastructure, ecological devastation, agricultural decline, and transportation congestion all for the sake of profit.

Moynihan said our cities were ‘soulless’, like Diogenes he was holding a lamp for architectural self-examination. Cities are not as safe as we would like, and we should always remember their epitaphs are too often ‘military target’. Violence and migration are the main problems of our ‘urbane’ urban design. We have so often been wrong in our problem solving, it is clear we need to learn more from our past patterns of tradition. The corruption in politics that creates bad planning, can only be countered by an aware and active population willing to conspire and protest more than the elites can bribe, to bring attention to values which cannot be bought. 

‘A Pattern Language’ by Chris Alexander explains how architecture is about relationships. There are many cultural associations and historical traditions that can be better than soulless sterile machines for living. Architecture is sculpture for living, and we should not ignore sociology and heritage for the sake of industrial convenience to serve a consumer society that is destroying our global environment for profit. Yes we should have standards for structures that are able to shelter us without collapsing, but sustainability must also include the arts and nature.



American House Now‘ by Doubilet & Boles

Better Places‘ Chapter in ‘Geography of NoWhere’

‘Pattern Language’ Relationships by Chris Alexander

New Urbanism, Second Generation‘ by Beth Dunlap

The Soulless City‘ by Moynihan





Cultural Middle-Ground

Posted in Atheist/Agnostic, Cooperative collaboration, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Ethics & Morals, Languages, Pagan, Religions, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 2, 2020 by Drogo

Most of us can be called poly-cultural in some major aspects in our lives. It is common to be part of a culture to some degree, while being part of other cultures or sub-cultures (religions, sects, social movements, political parties, ethnicities, etc). Like in Middle-Earth, there are many cultures that merge and create new cultures; talking about middle ground or coming to terms with other cultures, religions, ethnicities, or sub-cultures.

What religions, nations, or ethnicities am i 100% a part of? American? Depends on the definition and what the percentage means. I could say i am 100% American in that i am a natural born citizen of the USA and it includes so many other cultures; but North American USA DC christian style to be specific. Yet when i break that down it is not well defined beyond geography. Although part christian, i would be called a heretic by other christians to question dogmas like “jesus was perfect” (which is a classical question within christianity). American english with major influences and deviations into other languages and idiosyncrasies which are “wrong” by any institutional standard (besides SCOD).

Methodist – florida, iowa, harpers ferry

Catholic – st johns, franciscan, student

Agnostic – means i ask questions and hold positions which are heresy

Atheist – i think it is possible and probably to some degree there are no gods

Pagan – i worship Nature, FLW, organic, trees, death, neo-pagan

I like to find common points of agreement with Christians and people from other cultures. I talk on the phone or in person with as many religious people as i can, to work on moral theology. Brother Father Jay Hess was right in that mystery is ok in belief, we do not always need to have strict definitions for everything. In fact it may be impossible to agree on not only all religious concepts; but even linguistic semantics, as languages evolve and living languages flow organically and never totally conform to rules during the period. What is popular in speech or writing may deviate from grammatical dogma and the lectures of scholars. There will even be those who like to argue more than get along, rather to resolve any problems.

“There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect and cultural heritage; where the term “culture” specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors. By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.”

Middle ground or meeting someone part-ways (half-ways is ideal), negotiating for cooperation in community vs exiling and isolating by exclusion and neglect. This is how to avoid holy wars, and strive for peace. We can make peace with our enemies, assuming we are capable of it with our friends and families to some extent. Peace, love, and sharing are 3 great ways to practice faith in humanity, no matter our religion; and this is another ethical concept I am happy to say many people I talk to can agree on no matter their belief system. The most basic moral code being the ‘Golden Rule’, which is preferred over ‘An Eye For An Eye’; although treating others well being dependent on self-esteem and attitude (how we want to be treated) is another debate for an essay on ‘the limits of love’ probably.   [Audio Draft]


Spelling, Grammar, & Accent Style

Posted in Critical Commentary of Civilization, Languages, Multimedia Communication, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on July 16, 2019 by Drogo

If i want to hear what someone has to say, i will not only look past their accents, stuttering, spelling, grammar, punctuation, case, tone, and style; i will actually accept it as part of them like a birth mark or tattoo on skin. This is probably why i think most superficial opinionated critics are over-rated. I might be annoyed with someone’s personality even, but i try to find something of value deeper than what i think seems superficial (even in critics); searching in this way can last many years.

if one thinks they can make something better than someone else, they should try to do that rather than just say they are better. If they think they have already made something better, and are punching below their weight, that is less about grievance and more about wanting to abuse others. Preferences are like tastes, each to their own.

This is coming from a student that got top marks always in literature classes, above most of my peers all through school. I certainly wrote more stories and got into crafting stories way more than anyone else i went to school with in all my schools. Some people could spell better than me, but I always got A’s. When people want to correct someone, they want to inject their own ego into the other person’s work, regardless of how objective they claim to be, or how much they want to help. My grandfather would send my mother’s personal letters back to her in the mail with mistakes circled. He may have thought he was being helpful, but it expressed lack of concern for the emotional content of an adult married daughter in her 30s communicating with an emotionally and physically distant intellectual father. Trying to correct someone else is not always correct, even though it is instinctual and habitual especially with parents.

In WV most kids in my classes could not spell as well as me, and i know that nationally im not the best ‘speller’. I still cast my spells though. so i learned early on to judge people based on spelling was a quick way to devalue their lives, because to say that what they express was wrong based on letters is like saying that accents are wrong or ‘dumb’, and if accents are wrong then their sub-culture and all the lives in it are too. The game of correction was about conformity to the standards of authority, and much less about communication, because if i cared to get to know someone, i could understand the worst speller just fine; they can spell things their ways, and i might even change my way to fit their way. I stayed unconventional from grade school on.

Finding flaws to shut powerless people down is what fascists do best, and can only culminate with that level of bigotry in society; as we give free passes to monopolies for the rich. The powerful elite should be held to a higher standard than thousands of fools who affect less lives, not the other way around (which is the way it is). Diversity in speech (speach) is beautiful as it reflects the individual.

Yes language standards allow us to agree on symbols and meaning, but dedication to rules above independent expression can be culturally costly.

I not only make mistakes, but i intentionally do not use proper cases, spellings, or grammar (grammer) when ever I want, in order to convey what i want the way i want. Fuck Grammmmerly. Write how you want. If you want someone to tell you how to conform, find a tutor that will passionately do it for whatever you offer. People will chomp at the bit to tell others how to do things.

This essay is dumb, because it breaks rules.

Easy to be superficially critical.




Self-Publishing Paradox

Posted in Book Reports, Commercial Corporations, Crafts, Critical Commentary of Civilization, jobs, Languages, Pub Library, Services, Sales or Trade, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 27, 2018 by Drogo

How DC area book stores handle major publishers vs. local authors in 2018.

Book stores are still stuck in the old mentality with major publishers, rather than allow the flooded local markets to flourish with support. Retail profits largely hinge on perceived ‘popularity’ of brands, which is largely self-perpetuating based on reduced whole sale rates, and exaggerated sales advertising to push the merchandise on customers. Book mongers still have a very snobbish attitude towards local authors, even more so now that printed books are in competition with ebooks. Book mongers, like other capitalists will often declare that “there is a DEMAND’ for what they are selling, just as housing developers do when they create a artificial demand by making the supply and cornering the market with advertising and debt based commercial production.

Here is how one book store describes their consignment process on their website:

“Our consignment program helps us accommodate the overwhelming number of requests from local authors who wish to sell their books and host events at Curious Iguana. If, after reading all the information here, you have any questions, email. Please do not stop by or call the store with questions about our consignment program. Click here to download our Consignment Policies and Consignment Form for Author. Note that we do not read review copies, and we do not accept any books without a completed consignment form and FEE. About events – We receive numerous event requests from local authors every week. Only authors whose books have strong consignment sales and broad reader appeal will be considered for an event on a case-by-case basis. Authors should not expect that consigning books will result in an event.”

Consignment usually forces the local author to be in debt to the local store, rather than provide them with any net income. Local authors tend to purchase more books at stores from commercial authors in one visit, than their books may sell all year; so even local authors are more likely to spend more on international authors than their own book sales will make in years. After a few years of their books not being advertised, but often hidden, the author must then contact the store and ask what has sold, and then pick up their check if any have sold. Now that there are more local authors, they are even asked to pick up their remaining books to make room for others. In essence local authors are treated like cattle, and told they are not worthy to make money, and they should be lucky to have a consignment deal before getting kicked out. Quality differences in the contents of books, whether self published or not, have very little to do with these market issues; as mistakes can be found with many mass produced products. Even National Geographic published the wrong image of a sparrow in a major commercial release; not just typos but the very information that is the focus of the ‘best selling’ book can be factually wrong.

Perhaps some day there will be a book store just for local and self-published authors, and their books will be PURCHASED just like the major brand names are now, rather than relegated to forgotten shelves and treated as though they are not worth the paper they are printed on. Perhaps some day we will invest more in our local economies, rather than giving all profits to a few rich fat cats that could barely care less.

So in this area there are basically 2 stores that accept local authors, but due to demands by local authors that they have a place to sell their books, it is increasingly rare that the small portion of the store dedicated to local authors will have room for everyone in the flooded self-published book market. It seems that self-published is a niche market that is not being allowed space due to corporate monopolist priorities. The competitive cut-throat capitalist monopoly model of economics, stands in contrast to the sharing and networking pluralist (multiplicity) more free-market model. Some business workers pride themselves for being very morally patient with customers, clients, bosses, employees, co-workers, and partners; in that they value them as fellow humans and are very generous to the point of pleasantly accepting financial loss as sacrifice for more happiness. That moral model is considered a bad business model for serious capitalists however, because survival success of business is based on financial capital, not ethical capital. There is a strong historic argument to be made that more financial wealth can be made quicker and greater by meaner people that take huge risks, rather than generous people who tend to give away and share more (studies show these people are often considered ‘poor’).

Self-published authors can be economically vital, if local stores open to showcase them as the main product. Some regional examples may soon show that people will travel from around the world to visit unique collections that support populations directly with financing. Rather than stores asking you pay to maybe keep your book there temporarily, and refusing to talk to authors in person or on the phone about the issue of slavish consignment; an alternative option will be to support stores that support self-published authors, which would make independent authors the best meaning (and most fitting use) of the word ‘common’. Possibly current store owners don’t want to be harming the local economy by practicing their old business models, but supply and demand and advertising have very real aspects that corporations do not want commoners to discuss.

The self-publishing paradox is that although the book market is flooded by grassroots citizens writing and publishing books, the means to support them are not part of conventional business models. Even alternative efforts are suppressed due to social, economic, and linguistic self-destructive elitism. Most people that write books do it because they love it or are best at it, not because of the economic incentives because it is generally well known that artists, musicians, and writers are not given living wages. The attitude that the voice of the people is not worth hearing, has never been considered wise or good.

Git, Get, Bigot Duality Theory

Posted in Languages, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 14, 2016 by Drogo

To ‘beget’ seems to have some relationship to the words git, get, and bigot.

– Drogo Empedocles

Git or ‘yit’ was old english for ‘you two’. The phrase ‘you two’ can be interpreted as ‘both of you’, almost like a doppelganger; there are two ‘you’s’, as in fact you are saying ‘you and the second you’. Old country folk kept using the term ‘gyit’, in ways that may have been insulting for any number of reasons (classist, racist, bigoted, etc); so it became known as an insult after generations of use.

Get or ‘acquire and have’. Got is the past tense of get aka ‘had’, so bigot may have meant ‘two have had’ (Bi-Got / Be-Got), almost inferring an inherent hypocrisy in reproduction (yin-yang, duality of male-female). To possess something or someone is similar to get something or someone. ‘Possess’ also has two meanings; to hold control, and to be inside another. Got of course is also related to ‘god’, as in Swiss ‘by-god’. This gets into the ‘i am god’ / ‘son of god’ historical-linguistic issue, which is long enough for another essay.

A git or a bigot is a person that makes another self, perhaps in the future, that is destined to disagree with them, or attempt to replace them at some point, for any reason. This meaning of words has complex psychological concepts involved in the cultural historic definition, therefore dictionaries have probably not been adequate to record or teach how we think of these words. There is a natural parallel with this duality concept of ‘two selves’ and Janus, or the god with 2 faces. Threshold guardians are mysterious keepers of secrets of life, of light and dark, of two perspectives. The fear is always that they will be Jeckyl and Hyde, the evil making the good suffer.

To me these meanings were intuitive, and I remember feeling their greater implications as a child; when watching He-man and seeing his doppelganger Fakor, or in the Never Ending Story with the mirror of Atreu, or how confusing and mysterious creating, possessing, and being a creation of another was. Getting a thing, or begetting a child, makes another you, that is not yourself.

Harpers Languages

Posted in Languages, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , on July 7, 2016 by Drogo

Languages of Harpers Faery

These are not all the languages, nor are they full dictionaries of the languages, merely a basic guide. It is worth noting that these languages usually have their own alphabet and cultural interpretations of symbols; in addition to word and name differences. In this guide we only use Common symbols for simplification of quick universal translation. There are some hybrid words between human and faerie languages, because cultures have cross-over evolution blending.

Human Languages

Common, most common words of all Humans (Base Root)

Basic, words of Bards

Art, words of Artists

Northern, words of Nordics

Southern, words of Sothians

Eastern, words Atlantians

Western, words of Peaceans

Faerie Languages

Fae, most common words of all Faeries (Base Root)

Nom, words of Gnomes

Dwar, words of Dwarves

El, words of Elves

La, words of Fairies

Gob, words of Goblins

Tol, words of Trolls

Org, words of Ogres



Fae, most common words of all Faeries (Base Root)

Hello / Bye – Aey / La

Please / Thanks – El / Le

Give / Take – Nam / Tenna

Trade – Namtenna

Yes / No – Ha / Na

Nom, words of Gnomes

Hello / Bye – Oi / Noi

Please / Thanks – Wawa / Washi

Give / Take – Glee / Fill

Trade – Gleefool

Yes / No – Ah / Ha

Dwar, words of Dwarves

Hello / Bye – Dow / Tow (also bring)

Please / Thanks – (none) / Warsh

Give / Take – Ship / War

Trade – Warship

Yes / No – Da / Nac

El, words of Elves

Hello / Bye – Ey / Le

Please / Thanks – Ell / Lee vat

Give / Take – Nam / Tenna

Trade – Namtenna

Yes / No – Ha / Na

La, words of Fairies (mainly fairy-elves, but also includes some Pixies and Sprites)

Hello / Bye – Ay / La

Please / Thanks – Al / Le va

Give / Take – Nim / Tinna

Trade – Nimtinna

Yes / No – Ha / Na

Gob, words of Goblins

Hello / Bye – Ya / Ye

Please / Thanks – Yaa / Yee

Give / Take – Lob / Greb

Trade – Gob

Yes / No – Yee / Ka

Tol, words of Trolls

Hello / Bye – Raw / Ash

Please / Thanks – (none) / Tank (means ‘you do not need that’)

Give / Take – Ka / Graw

Trade – Trogg

Yes / No – Tog / Rah

Org, words of Ogres

Hello / Bye – Ho (announces presence)

Give / Take – Grip / Grap

Trade – Gripgrap

Yes / No – Og / Ra

Japanese Words

Posted in Languages with tags , , , , , , on October 11, 2010 by Drogo

Drogo’s favorite Japanese Words


yes – hai


no – eiyae


good afternoon / day – konnichi wa


good evening – konban wa


good bye – sayonara


thank you (very much) – domo (oregato)


please – dozo


call – denwa




school – gakko


class – jikyo


friend – tomodachi


blackboard – kokuban


pencil – empitsu


paper – kami


after school class – juku


small work group – han


straw mat – tatami


apartment building – danchi


pinball machine – panchinko


Japanese writing character – kanji


warrior – samurai


warlord – shogun


foreigners – gaikokujin


cashier – kaikei


cash – genkin


uketori – receipt


today – kyo


yesterday – kino


bath – basu


book – hon


car – jidosha


chewing gum – mu


rain – ame


cloud – kumo


fog – kiri


wind – kaze


hot – atsui


fire – kaji


man – hitori


cow – meushi


crab – kani


ant – ari


fly – hae


earth – chikyu


teeth – ha


diving – tobikomi


wise – kashikoi









Celtic Welsh Words

Posted in Languages with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on September 6, 2010 by Drogo

Drogo’s List of Celtic Welsh Words

adeilad = building           aderyn (adar) = bird

ahnod = difficult

afon = river                   agor = open

allan = out                      afal = apple     alban= scotland

amser= time                  anfon = send

anghofio = forget          = remember

anghywir = wrong        de = right, south

anferth = huge              anadlu = breathe

annwyd, sal = illness             ar = on

ar unwaith = at once    araf = slow   argoll= lost

arbennig = special arian = money

aros = stay, wait           arwydd = sign

at = to, at, located

bach, bychan = small     byr = short

bardd- bird singer        balch = proud, happy

bara = bread

byd = world

bellach, nawr= now              beth = what

blodyn, blodau= flower blwyddyn = year

bob = always, every              bodlon = satisfied, willing

bore = morning      brifo = hurt

brokk- by rocks (brook), badger

bron = almost (brown=brown)     brwnt, budr = dirty

bryn = hill              bys = finger   byw = live

bwydo = feed          bwthyn = cottage

cadair = chair        cae. maes = field    cael = get

cath = cat               casau = hate           cartre = home

caled = hard           canu = sing     caru = love

carr (karr) – to carry, a cart

ceg = mouth   cegin = kitchen      celwydd – lie

ci (gi)= dog               cig = meat       clwb=club       coch=red

coed = wood   coffi=coffee   costus=expensive

cor – short, dwarf

corff = body   crac = angry         crwn=round

cywm, cwm, quim, dyfryn= valley, feminine

cwrw =beer   cychwyn =start

cyfarchion = greetings        croeso = welcome

cyllell = knife         cymorth = help      cymru = wales

cystal = so, equal   cysgu = sleep         cynnes = warm

chi = you         chwalu = destroy          chwarae = play

da = good, right      do = yes  de = right, south

dal, tal= tall, catch        danfon = send

darn = piece   diflannu = disappear

diwedd = end          din = home, hearth        dinas = city

diod = drink            diolch = thank you

dod = come, bring          dogfen = document

dolmen = daol (long flat) + maen (main stone)

deon, dion = dune, hill, fort, man

drwg = bad     drws = door           dwr = water

derwydd = der (oak) + (wydd) wood, druid

dydd = day

(llun = Monday, mawrth = Tuesday, mercher = Wednesday, iau = Thursday, gwener = Friday, sadwrn = Saturday, sul =Sunday)

dyfodol = future for a man         dyn, dion = man

e, fe = he, him, it

efo = with       eistedd= sit     ennill = win, earn

eto = again

fanna = there        fel = like, as    finnau, i = i, me

fferm = farm         ffordd= way  fforest=forest

gaea= winter gawl= call       gan = by

gardd=garden        golygus= good looking

gwanwyn= spring         gwynt = wind

gogledd= north      gorllewin= west

haf = summer        heulog= sunny       hi= she, her, it

heno = tonight

hithau= she, it        hwon= this, one

hunan= self            isal = lower    ian = up

karr- car, cart, carry

lloegr= england     llong= ship

mai= that

mab, mabon= son            mam= mother

math = type of kind       mawr= big

mel = honey    menywn = woman, butter

mynd = go       naddo, nage = no            neb= no-one

nature=nature      neis=nice        newydd=new

ni = we, us      nesa = next, near

nofio= swim

nol = fetch      nos= night               o = of, from

oer= cold        os, pe = if

pan = when     pen= head, end       peth= thing

pleant= child          poeth= hot      pont= bridge

pwy= who               rhoi= give, put

sut= how         syth= straight

tad = father   tan = until       teg= fair    tegan=toy

talu= pay        taro = hit        tirlun= landscape

torri= break, cut          tau= about apx.      tu= side

troed = foot, trod         ty= house

wyneb = face         wedyn= then, later       wy = egg

yr= the           yma= here      yn= in      un= one


dw i = i am              wt ti = you are

o’n i = i was             o’t ti =  you were

maen nhw = they are

“keep-a-look” = look       -ydd, -nnod, -oedd, -nau

na fydda= no i wont be

Celtic Gaelic Words

Posted in Languages with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 6, 2010 by Drogo

Drogo’s Guide to Gaelic (Remnants of an ancient Celtic Language)

Gaeilge (Irish Gaelic), Gaidhlig (Scottish Gaelic)

(An evolved into Am= a, an, the) Ann=in it   -an = plural

Abair (radh)= say          Agus = and, as

Alba = Scotland     Alasdair= Alexander

Abhainn (aving)= River

Am Maireach (amarach) = Tomorrow

An Nochd(nochk)= tonight   An Raoir(rawir)=lastnight

An De = yesterday      Maduinn (ma-ting)= morning

An Drasda= Now         An Seo(sho)= here

Air= On it     Air son= for          Air Falbh= Away, off

Arm = Army         Aran= bread          As = Out, off

Barton = Britain           Blathan (blahan)= flowers

Buail (boil)= strike         Baile (bala)= Town

Boidheach (boyach) = bonnie, beautiful

Boirionnach (borunach)= woman

Bruich (brooech)= boil, cook        Beag, bige(beeka)= tiny

Cearn (-a, -an)=region, corner, kitchen

Creidsinn (kretshing)= believing, thinking

Cuir = put       Caileag (kalag)= girl

Car (cuir)= twist, bend, trick      Co= who

Cor= (coir, cuir)= condition, state

Coille (kyleya), fiodha= wood       Craobh (kroov)=tree

Ceo (kyo)= Mist     Ceum (kaym)= step, walk

Cum (cumail) = keep, hold             Crion = withered

Dail (dalach, dailthean)= riverside meadow

Damhair= October      Dana= bold     Dara= second

Dhachaidh (dachy) =Home   Taigh (taee) =House

Dheas = South       Dheasol= southern

Dion(a) = protect, shelter            Druidh=Druid

Dona = Bad            Math (ma)= Good

Doon = Fort          Do / Gus / chun= To

Dorra= difficult           Doire = grove       Droch = bad

Each = Horse         Ear, Sear= East

Eire (Ire or Erin)= Ireland   Fasa= easier

Fan=stay  Fann(faoon)= weak

Fios (fiss)/Eolas= knowledge       Graidh = Love

Gaidhlig = Gaelic   Gearr= short, cut        Gun=that

Iain = John             Iasg = fish      Iar, Siar= West

Im (eem)=butter

Lugha, beag = smaller, less

Loch (loch)= lake            Leig (lyayk)= let

Mal =rent      Mac= son       Math= (Maa)

Maighstir (maystir)=Master

Mo= my         Mor= bigger         Moran = many

Nollaig (nolig)= Birth / Christmas

Oran = song          Oraid = speech

Pogue = Kiss / Male prostitute

Righ Deorsa (ree jorsa)= King George

Banrigh Ealasaid = Queen Elizabeth

Rug = catch, bore, lay

Seomar(shomar)= room       Sgriobh(skreev)= Write

Seolta (sholta) = wide-awake, cute      Solair = supply

Sid (side) = weather

Sinn (shin)= shall not     Sine (Sheena)= Jean, older

Sion = Something, anything          Sith = peace, quietness

Sgian(skean)= knife        Suidh (sooee)= sit

Siubhail (seubal)= go, walk, die

Slainte (slanche)= (toast to your) health, toast, cheers!

Slighe = way, path, road       Sluagh = people, public

Sneachd (snaech)= snow

Samhuinn (Samna) = November

Samhradh (samhraid) = Summer

Smaoin / Smuain (smooin) = thought

T= ch              Tart = thirst

Tapa Leat/Leibh(layv) = Thank you

Teine = a fire        Teth = hot      Tearlach= Charles

Tir (cheer)= land, country          Tog = lift

Trath (tra)= early

Tuath = North, left, deiseil (against the sun)

Deiseil, deiseal = ready, southward

Ulaidh(e) = Treasure

Ululo (Latin= I howl) Ululatus = Celtic Warcry / Ululare = To Cry or Cheer

Ur = your              Ubh (oo)= Egg