Archive for the Nature Studies Category

DC Area Flora Species Survey Project

Posted in Nature Studies, Organic Development, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 4, 2019 by Drogo

Volunteer efforts to make a ‘Washington DC Metropolitan Area’ survey map of identified flora species will be documented by SCOD over the course of several years, starting in a few local areas the team can access easily. Frederick and Thurmont are the first areas we are beginning with because of access and pre-existing information by naturalists.

The SCOD Frederick Area Flora Species Mapping project has begun! Node 1a Block 1 of Spiral 1b is surveyed in my notebook. It will take several years to complete the region map, but more than 3 people will be working on it (Drogo, Christine, & Drumwise), and will focus on trees and shrubs estimates, but will include any info donated.

Please contact Drogo Empedocles, Chris Drumwise Ousse, or Christine Maccabee if you are interested in helping or contributing to our project. Find us on Facebook or leave a comment below. Thanks for your support!




Pot Bib – Corn King Sparrow

Posted in Biographies, Nature Studies, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on May 25, 2019 by Drogo

Last winter a loud male house sparrow spent most of his waking time sitting in the potted plant where we put small bits of corn. Other sparrows would come, but he would usually chase them out, and get into fights with other males (one time wounding him). We call male sparrows ‘bibs’ because of their black beard-like feathers, and birds that sit in pots for long hours we call ‘pot birds’ (it happens occasionally). So we named him Pot Bib, because he seemed to prefer sitting in the pot to all else.

Pot Bib’s first goal in life seemed to be to claim the pot as his home during the day, and at night he would sometimes sleep in a nearby abandoned robin’s nest. I had witnessed the robin’s nest getting raided by a crow, who looked for nests under gutter-down-spout corners in between balconies like that one. Pot Bib added grass to the nest, and slept in it for many early spring nights; so he could wake up and be right in the pot again. Starlings also raided the nest just for materials, and still Pot Bib would often sleep there, but also at another roost somewhere else. After a few weeks, Pot Bib lost interest in the nest as no mate wanted to risk the location probably.

Pot Bib’s second goal in life was to have a mate, and he did have a girl-friend who he allowed to eat corn, hang around, and chase him out of the pot. When the weather got warmer, Pot Bib got another life-style away from the pot; but still returns and chirps in his insane way every day.

I made a nest in a small wooden basket with a handle for Pot Bib on Easter (Ostara). In the basket I put mud half way up, then stuck in tiny twigs, wove in grasses and pine needles, and cushioned with chick-weed and yarrow. I thought that either Pot Bib or the house finches that come would take it, but our familiar mourning doves claimed it instead; but that is the story of Lucky the Dove.

potbib basket nest


Lucky the Dove – Biography

Posted in Biographies, Individuals / Members / Monsters / Creative Writing, Nature Studies, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 24, 2019 by Drogo

Lucky the Fledgling Dove – journal notes of the biography of Lucky’s youth

Lucky 11

Close Call Adventures of Lucky


Lucky’s parents are ‘3 Dots’ and ‘Neuro’, friendly wild mourning doves. Lucky was the second of two eggs they laid in a nest I made in a small basket (see the story of Pot Bib),  and hung under the eve of the balcony, near the back wall. lucky hatched May 12th 2019 on Mother’s  Sunday. I checked on the babies every other day and petted them. When they were just eggs the parent flew away immediately when I  approached. after the eggs hatched the parent stayed on the nest and would let me pet the parent with some Wing slaps. I wanted to get the babies familiar with me so I moved the nest to the floor of the balcony For a few minutes before putting it back,  and only then would the parent Fly Away.


Lucky was 5 days old,  friday May 17th

sibling got taken by a crow. Lucky brought inside for the night, attempted feeding, partially successful, Lucky swallowed some of the last attempts. 

Lucky remained safe in the nest now relocated hidden under the bench, parents resumed feeding.

Lucky 6

randomly a red-shouldered Hawk was chased by a Crow, both landed on adjacent roof looking in at balcony, i scared them off.


Lucky was 9 days old

I attempted to put an ID band on Lucky’s leg, but we didnt have anything that would work as well as professionals use. I tried using a white twist-tie and rubber band, but getting the correct tightness was much harder than i thought it would be, so i gave up. 

At dusk, at edge of balcony Lucky jumped fledging for food.

looked on ground and in tree but could not see. missing all night 


Lucky was 10 days old

morning mowers Machines of death,  looked all around, upon feeding branch baby was found. i climbed the fledging tree four times during this period. I had checked on Lucky and was content it would be fine on the feeding branch. However when i returned a few hours later, it had been knocked out of tree (i assume by Crow), and went under car. I chased Lucky around the car, and caught it, and put it in nesting box to bring back inside.

  Bath time. Practiced wing flapping.

At night back inside  in cage, and in our hands attempted feeding. Lucky Dovey was calm except for when we played a video of adult doves. Lucky responded to the video by peeping vocally and lunging towards the screen. Lucky touched the screen with its beak and could not get to them, and after being amused for a minute or so, we turned it off so that it could calm down. Dovey and me fell asleep on couch, Lucky was on my belly, in a bundle lap pillow with tissues.

Luck 10

Lucky was 11 days old

I took lucky outside in the morning and we waited for its parents to come to the tree.  I sat in a chair reading a book while babysitting, lucky sat on my arm. people looked at me strangely, but I am not afraid to explain when I am trying to help an animal.  when the mother came it walked around lucky at the base of the tree, but would not feed lucky. the parents flew up into the tree, and lucky followed.  amazingly lucky was able to fly 5 ft up to the nearest branch, and climb and hop and fly up to the feeding branch. Hawk came in trees while feeding at feeding branch in morning.  Crow landed between balconies, while being attacked by Mockingbird, and looked into the balconies to find food. I moved lucky back to balcony. I got lucky onto a stick, and then my arm. Lucky hung to my back while i jumped down from tree, safely.

In cage on balcony, Lucky and Daddy ‘3 Dots’ could not solve the puzzle for feeding through a partially Open Door.  lucky did make it out of the partially open door once for one of three feedings that day. Three dots spent one hour going to the sides of the cage and cooing while both were peeping. lucky gets into a Feeding Frenzy most X it is called to by parents,  except for the time lucky spent in the nest again rest in 4 hours. during this time it ignored it’s parents and stayed in the nest like it did when it was a younger baby. I let Lucky out of the cage when I knew the parent was nearby and thought it might feed it.  three dots watched for a long time while babysat and both called when lucky was in the center of the balcony. lucky was able to push open the door once but seems to forget how it got in perhaps because Dove minds are not as sharp as crows who can use tools and unlock door mechanisms.  the large black birds soaring in the sky or probably turkey vultures because they did not flap as often as crows do, but ominously watched from the stadium lights which are taller than all the trees. Bath time. Practiced wing flapping and hunting for seeds with Noel.


At sunset I wanted to be generous and allow the parent a final chance to come on the balcony and feed the baby,  but like last time the parent was more interested in calling the baby to come to them. so I told the baby to call to the parents and get them to come to it.  as usual I allowed lucky a way to get out of the cage for feeding and fly away if it could. as dark approached and the father cooed , Lucky woke up into another Feeding Frenzy,  which surprised me because it had been so sleepy on the Nest earlier, and even when we were playing with it. eventually lucky looked straight at me through the open cage door, and burst through.  lucky sat on the bench cushion for a few seconds, and I sat there looking back at lucky, knowing lucky might chase after the cooes and leave the balcony. lucky gave me one last look, and leapt off of the cushion and over the railing,  flying all the way to the top of the nearby tree. when I went out to look and climbed for a fourth time, I think I scared the parents and lucky off to another tree, because even with the flashlight I could not find lucky, so I gave up for the night.  lucky continues to amaze me by how well it can fly when it wants to, even without adult feathers. Lucky’s juvenile feathers work amazingly well and may allow lucky to follow its parents around.

Lucky is 12 days old today,  and hopefully getting more feedings to grow faster if it is able to be with the parents more often. this morning the sweet air was fresh, the green of the tree leaves bright, and the branches moved in the breeze. I have seen Lucky’s parents, but no sign of Lucky. I hope Lucky survives and learns enough to live a long happy life, even if i never see Lucky again.

Lucky is 13 days old on Saturday, May 25

I walked around the block 3x today and did not see Lucky. It was not until dusk, after a rain shower, when i was going out to the store, that I spotted Lucky on the bedroom gable peak. Its parents were on the ground, cooing to Lucky to get down because it was too vulnerable up there in clear view. However Lucky learned from me how to dry off in the sun, and has a mind of its own. I recognized Lucky because it does not have mature feathers on its neck yet, so in silhouette has a very thin neck. We confirmed with binoculars for about 20 minutes. Two crows passed directly over Lucky, but Lucky did not flinch and they were not interested. I am so proud of Lucky, i think it will be ok. Then Lucky flew into the fledging tree, near the top, presumably for the night. As darkness fell, i spotted the mother in the center of the tree.

It seems Lucky may have spent yesterday high up in the fledging tree, where i could not see or get to it easily. It is also possible Lucky went to a few other trees and bushes, and I may have seen Lucky in a bush, but it could have been a robin fledgling since i saw 2 or 3 of them. I also saw a catbird and robin on a nest in bushes. The mulberry tree in back has many ground level berries, they are good. I am satisfied knowing that Lucky is doing well, and is not lost.

Lucky is 14 days old

Possible Lucky sighting in chickweed pot, but bird was gone before confirmed.


Lucky is 20 days old, June 1

Lucky sighted on roof of adjacent condo in the morning. Then before dusk sighted up close within 3 feet, and close enough to almost touch, in the juniper bush on the retaining wall of the parking lot. It is a great defensive bush, because it is prickly, with room in the branches for a small bird to walk around, with a fence in the middle for it to go in and out of to avoid larger animals who get in one side of the bush. When i returned, Lucky was sitting just outside the bush, and then flew up to the nearby redbud tree when approached. Catbirds, Mockingbirds, and Robins help the dove parents to guard the area.


Lucky might be 26

I found clumps of feathers that might belong to a baby or juvenile bird (dove, robin, mocking, or catbird) in a 3′ diameter in the lawn area near the tot-lot and 3 pines and yard bushes. No body, or body parts, or blood were found, and it was mainly small fluff, to a few medium feathers (grey with white tip). Lucky may have been attacked by a hawk or something, but no conclusive proof just evidence and speculation. It may have happened earlier this day, or a day or two before. Towards dusk (8pm) the dove parents came to the balcony and got water as usual, but this time sat on the grey pot together and shook their wings like babies begging with wing-flaps, rather than mating (because they both did it and faced opposite directions at one point). Perhaps they were apologizing for failing as parents, if it was Lucky that was attacked and killed, they might regret not keeping Lucky closer to me like i wanted for better protection. I have to face the fact that Lucky could die any day at any moment that i am not near Lucky, whether it already happened or may happen later, until they are adults (1-15 years) young doves are more likely to die. The parents go under the bench near the nest basket and eat the corn we left there. If Lucky is missing, perhaps the parents think i will give them back Lucky like we did in the past when we were able to take Lucky inside for protection? Now the parent doves are perched under the railing at the edge of the balcony. Either they are telling Lucky it is ok to come visit now and drink water and eat as an adult; or they are saying good-bye to Lucky’s spirit, if Lucky has died or has gone off on adventures with a flock of other juveniles. I do not know where Lucky is in any case. 


Days 27-30+

There have been a few sightings and much speculation about whether Lucky has stayed here locally or is gone far away. I have either seen Lucky come with a parent, or maybe it was a different dove couple visiting. A few times a third adult-looking dove has tried to come with Lucky’s parents to the balcony area, but each time the third dove was chased off (probably by 3 dots). The third dove was either another child of theirs returning, a rival mate, or Lucky.


Lucky is over 50 days 

I am 50% sure that the dove coming with 3-dots is either Lucky or its Mom. If it is Lucky where is the Mom, on a nest? If it is the Mom why is she slightly scaled (slightly mottled) and not as sleek and elegant? Either way 3-dots is comfortable with them, as they sometimes come together without incident and with some affection (subtle wing wiggle and close proximity). Nothing can be confirmed, as comparisons would best be made if the parents came together with Lucky (all 3 would be present to differentiate).


Lucky is over 60 days

I am 70% sure that Lucky Dove has been visiting its birth balcony for weeks now. Confusion over identification has been due to post-30 day juvenile-adult behavior, plumage, and social changes. Lucky now acts and looks like a molting adult (barely mottled), and while timid with short visits resembling the appearance and behavior of its mother or other doves, Lucky does display unique traits of familiarity that would not be present in any other dove in this combination.

If this disheveled light tan colored multi-dot dove is Lucky, the puffing and preening on adjacent Thomas’ Gable might be Lucky a bit uncomfortable with its new adult feathers which are still scaled (slightly mottled). Communication was made with Lucky for several minutes, while preening on Thomas’s Gable, which helped increase the id percentage. Lucky’s mother would have flown away at that distance (15 feet from Gable to balcony edge), and there is no other dove besides 3-dots that would have tolerated being called to and observed in that spot, at that distance, for so long. In fact I got tired of talking to Lucky and using the binoculars, so i sat down on the bench in hopes Lucky would come visit with me there because i was calmly still; however Lucky flew across to the Trash Condo balconies eventually.

When Lucky comes and drinks and bathes in the water, I am trying to play my recordings of Lucky begging with its Dad, to see if Lucky responds to those sounds with behavior indicating affectionate memory. Other experiments maybe attempted, despite lacking a DNA tester or id tag or bands. 

Possible reasons for Lucky missing from the balcony area for about 20 days –

Lucky might have been scared away by the parents during the juvenile period that parental feeding was ending; if Lucky was following them and begging, they might have been trying to get it to stop. Lucky might have been scared away by the parents after they were done feeding it, not only to get it to stop but also to get it to move to another area. Lucky may have had to hang out by itself or with other juveniles, until it learned not to beg from adults. Now that Lucky does not beg for food and is able to find food on its own, the parents may tolerate or enjoy its presence again. 3-dots seems to actually enjoy being with Lucky when they come, drink, look for food a bit or bathe, and leave together.


2 Climate Change Theories

Posted in Artificial Chemical Products, Climate Change, Commercial Corporations, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Military, Science & Math, Technology - Vehicles, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 3, 2019 by Drogo

Scientific vs Corporate

The main climate change theory i will call the Scientific Climate Theory presented by the majority of scientists is that artificial CO2 and other man-made (in addition to natural) factors are primarily contributing to overall global warming, which causes climate change in various ways, sometimes temporarily cooling during warm seasons (which seems like a contradiction but is not because the overall trend is warming according to annual temperature averages). This consensus in Science is supported primarily by Centrist Left Wing and Radical Liberals politically, who believe that the time for debate is over and it should not be a political issue because it is true and not just an opinion.

The minority climate change theory i will call the Corporate Climate Theory, supported by extreme skeptics of science and government (deniers), is that environmentalists are lying about the data evidence to hide that most of it is naturally either being caused by Solar irregularities or Geo-tectonic magnetic seismic shifts and volcanic activity or both. This is the side that defends those totally uninterested or ignorant in climate science as well, who doubt there are any problems with pollution that can affect global conditions. One of the issues they bring up is that storm flooding (cold) and (heat) droughts are opposites, and should not both be results of global warming. This proposed paradox does not take into account the melting of the polar ice which raises sea level, and the chaos that can result from this regarding flooding and more severe storms, freak cooling periods in some areas, but overall prolonged intense heating of the global atmosphere. Minor theories are usually supported by Radical Right Wing Conservatives and Libertarians (Corporate Centrists tend to pay lip service and not want any action on it), who believe no one should interfere in the rights of corporations to pollute, and are currently dismantling the EPA, NPS, and other branches of the government under Trump.

So to summarize, both agree that there will be more severe climate chaos like weather that is out of season. The Scientific Climate Theory says that artificially caused CO2 pollution from industry and agriculture is mainly to blame, as it can clearly be shown to increase during the Industrial Age of civilization, and not anytime in human history before this. It does have some similarities to pre-historic massive volcanic periods, but other chemical evidence and current factors rule out volcanoes as the main cause in CO2 levels currently. The most extreme Corporate Climate Theory is our government is lying to us to hide that our Sun is growing closer or more intense; which can be debunked by talking to actual scientists who observe the Sun independent of the government, and that it would make no sense for the branches of the government like the EPA or NPS or Pentagon to give false support for environmentalists, because most of the government is controlled by Corporate interests, and they do not benefit by belief in environmentalism. Corporate Green-washing is not what interests people who care about quality of life for all animals and humans, nor the military who takes the threats of Climate Change seriously due to the causes of wars that are tied to natural conditions like resources, property, shelter, and all the economics related to environmental issues. The money being made by Scientists or environmentalists currently, still pales compared to the profits of fossil fuel polluters, so the theory of profit motive causing scientists to lie about climate data is bunk as well. The debate is over for rational thinkers, but the corporate socialism vs democratic socialism debate is just beginning for a world run and terrorized by capitalists.

The Problem of Real Science and the Bias of Money

Posted in Artificial Chemical Products, Climate Change, Commercial Corporations, Ethics & Morals, Legal / Laws, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 31, 2018 by Drogo

Regarding Corporate Science Corruption


“How do we find out about the real science behind corporate chemicals?” is a great question. There are major court cases that are on-going and are finally exposing how scientists (not just politicians) are affected by where they get their funding, as other historic cases have shown before. Activists are attacked by people claiming to be the voice of scientific reason who defend corporate science, although they seem to know less about the corporate details involved with how the business world affects science and our environment (not just politics). It is very difficult to get people interested in large scale safe environments above immediate MONEY to supply specific food, drink, and shelter for individuals and loved ones…. until those things are taken from us; but then without money we lack much power within the system, and we are accused of emotional bias, as though corporate lackeys are objective. ‘Ring of Fire’ on Youtube has lawyers involved so they are covering the news about these issues, with a bias that is dedicated to exposing how corporations function by using science for their profit as the structure of their power. It is not true that companies use science for purely objective reasons, or that they would allow themselves to be subjected to ‘objective’ science if it did not benefit them, and in fact they do everything within their power to make sure that they can control studies in their favor.

Is there any way to know if the ‘peer-reviewed’ information has filtered out any bias towards the company? This is the best way to ask the question about our most ‘objective science’ regarding company neurotoxins and carcinogens. No offense to scientists, but it happens like with the Oil and Tobacco companies, pay-checks often come first for families. It does not benefit employed scientists to admit to bias, it just simply affects their way of interpreting data and conducting tests. Nuclear scientists are more prone to be in favor of things that cause nuclear radiation by down playing the risks which are acceptable costs for them in favor of ‘advancing science’ and getting their funding. Every profession is subject to this problem of economics, so i am not picking on scientists, i am an architect and many of us are rational and brilliant too, but profit influence happens in our field as well because it is the system that hires us that is on trial when it comes to environmental science ethics. Environmental peer review for Climate Change seems to be large enough to have not been as corrupted in the favor of companies as much as specific chemicals that companies produce to sell.

With so many billions of dollars at stake for corporations like Monsanto (GMO and Glyphosphate Science), our courts and scientists may not even be aware of how to be objective when their own family members have bought into the propaganda that allows them to pay their bills and provide and protect their loved ones. As with Oil Companies and Tobacco Companies, we should assume that toxins can affect us and our environment, and those that produce them should perhaps be more responsible by being held accountable. Few people will not be biased in one way or another, but real science should be the goal, not corporate greed. If it sounds like I am describing a fictional dystopia, perhaps the reader should be more realistic about how Capitalism actually works in reality (our EPA is in ruins in 2018). The larger problem of real science and the bias of money that affects us all will continue to exist so long as we allow our government to be influenced by corporate money at the highest levels, more than they are influenced by environmental ethics and a desire for more ethical science which means being more objective than the influence of money (which is asking a lot). People are innocent until proven guilty, but if a provable crime needs to be investigated we need to let the evidence decide if people are using corporations as tools to corrupt politics and science, and harm humanity in favor of profits for the few.

As an architect i take rationality and logic about designs very seriously, so i do not believe scientists are alone in wanting to take credit for knowing how we interact with our environment and how we can make technological innovations for improving humanity by using ‘facts’. “Peer reviewed” does not mean scientists do not all have their own human biases regarding how data is interpreted; that is part of my point. “Purely objective” as a philosophical ideal is worth talking about for the sake of science and law enforcement and ethics etc… This issue of the influence of money on science (and every profession and field of study) will not go away, but it is one we should deal with honestly in studying the sustainability of civilization. Peer reviews are not exempt from being reviewed over decades, with new conclusions drawn.




Akasha and the Elements of Nature

Posted in Nature Studies, Pagan, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on August 15, 2018 by Drogo

Akasha – the Assemblage of the Elements of Nature

Akasha is a Hindu word meaning space, aether, or heavenly sky in traditional Indian cosmology. Metaphysically Akasha is a primal aether fluid that allowed physical existence by universally containing and being a part of the building blocks of the 4 elements of the material plane. Akasha can be considered the fifth element within Nature that also super-naturally transcends it. Akasha binds the 4 other elements spiritually to our souls, the Material Universe, and the Spirit Universe. The four Elements are aspects of Nature, but also a connection to the spirit world through Akasha aether. The 4 elements widely accepted by Celtic Wiccan and other polytheist Pagan spiritual paths are: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. These four elements are represented by an equal cross (Celtic Cross) often in conjunction with the cardinal directions, with the Akasha circle border around the cross being the 5th all encompassing element that binds them all together, and from which they come (according to Hindu). In ancient Native American culture this was the Earth-Sun Cross (Medieval Mississippian).

The fifth element is shown in diagram when using a pentagram, to include Spirit as the directional point. Fire’s place on the pentagram is often the lower right point (Tao upper right). Chinese Taoism believes the 5 elements to be Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water; having Metal instead of Akasha Spirit, and Wood instead of Air. Taoists also apply their Yin-Yang dualist theory of opposites to the elements, like polarities of particles. Fire is considered the most Yang (active) energy, and Water the most Yin (passive). Too much fire element in a dwelling can stimulate Chi (Chinese word for Spirit ‘Life Force’) aggressively; resulting in anger, impatience, impulsiveness, ambition and burnout. Chi should be used sparingly in the bedroom, since the main use is resting. Feng Shui (Wind-Water) is about balancing physical, mental, and spiritual levels to attempt harmony. It takes a great deal of Feng Shui study to determine how to design Akasha spaces, and where best to apply the elements in physical symbols and shapes.

The alchemy of elements using Akasha chi or spirit as a catalyst, allows transformation such as Fire changing Water to Air. Akasha is present in elements at their crossing, as well as around them. Akasha can also be intention of our spirit or mental will, as the 5th point on the pentagram. Akasha allows us to transcend our physical existence, and experience the Sublime daily, not just when our spirit separates from our mortal bodies.


Elemental Alchemical Effects

(Stop/Start or Hinder/Promote)

Air Stops Earth – Flying above the surface winds & precipitation blow.

Air Starts Fire – Oxygen allows Fire to consume other fuel (wood)

Fire Stops Water – Heat melts ice into Water and aids its evaporation.

Fire Starts Air – Fires cause smell & smoke H2O heated evaporates to Air

Water Stops Fire – H2O quenches (extinguishes) Fire.

Water Starts Earth – Rain nourishes trees, plants, and animals of the Earth.

Earth Stops Water – Dams of Earth and Trees block or slow Water Flow.

Earth Starts Air – Vegetation Flora creates Oxygen and many Scents.


Spirit Makes Metal – Air, Fire, Water, Iron, & Fuel of Earth by Humans

Refines Metals allowing purification & combination alloys

Spirit (Metal) To Earth – Water & Air oxidize & rust Metal back to Earth.


pentagram 5


Arboritecture – Tree Architecture

Posted in Alternative Architecture, Crafts, Futurist, inventions, Nature Studies, Organic Agriculture & Horticulture, Sculpture, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , on October 28, 2017 by Drogo

SCOD Tree Architecture – Arboritecture, a subset of Hortitecture

Trees could revolutionize our way of living, if we returned to living in and around them more. Conventional architecture is terrible at doing so, and is designed in opposition to trees, because vegetation touching dead building materials tend to make them rot. It is possible to live with an awareness of various levels of growth and decay, but it would require a culture more integrated with the natural environment.

Imagine devices that used living energy from photosynthesis. Design Science should explore the relationship of natural-artificial hybrids, methodologies of integrating plant matter into building fabric, issues of maintenance and sustainability, and ecological biological and organic architectural materials for environmental design.