Archive for capitalism

Capitalist Fascism

Posted in Commercial Corporations, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Ethics & Morals, History, Military, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on August 8, 2019 by Drogo

Capitalist Fascism Essay  – [ SCOD Audio Recording ]

Fascism according to the founders of it, was corporate rule of government in the name of nationalism and political theories, to benefit the leaders of corporations (big bosses) who are the rightful plutocrats. Fascism could associate itself with other economic theories besides Capitalism, but true fascism worships individual business success of the few to represent the many. Monopolies can be replaced, but should never be punished for crimes, because corporate boss owners are elite leaders who have earned the right to be glorified. The utopian theory of ‘Free-market Capitalism’ is not desirable by fascists, because they needed to make laws to benefit their own cronies, and have their will obeyed by the ignorant masses. So competition for wealth should be restricted among the few successful enough to be plutocrats, and oligarchs hold the power.

“Fascism (/fashizum/) is a form of radical right-wing authoritarian ultra-nationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy.” “Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict, and to respond effectively to economic difficulties.” Fascism has been criticized for being ideologically dishonest.” Wikipedia

Lying and changing rhetoric to suit situations is historically part of Fascism. When the Nazis turned on Italy, Italian Fascists denounced their allies by pointing out policy distinctions, despite the similarities of their Fascist ideologies. Nazis claimed to be Socialist only because it was popular, and they needed to compete with German Communists who had almost led a successful Marxist revolution after WW1. This is in keeping with the common sense notion that “all politicians lie”, and when militaries support lying politicians who do not really care about human rights it has resulted in totalitarian governments who use false labels like ‘Capitalist’, ‘Communist’, or ‘Socialist’; while restricting the best aspects of those utopian theories. Fascism embraced the deceitful greedy flaws in politics, as part of their justification for totalitarianism (militant nationalism).

The definition of Fascism during the post-modern period is best explained by Neo-Nazis and the US military. Our military (which is paid under our government socialist tax program, and uses government communism to provide soldier base facilities) is fascist because it serves its own mega-corporate ‘contractors’ who control crony politicians legally by Capitol Congress lobbyists. Fascism has evolved to fit the new ‘Centrist’ leaders who may or may not want to use the titles depending on who they are around, in order to work within a larger complex political social system. This is similar to how Nazis took and held power, as Hitler wanted to control both left and right wings (even though Nazi theory is right-wing by objective definition). KKK members often say they are not racist in public for another example, so it is interesting how people define themselves (KKK is a racist fraternal group, that supports political fascists). It is not necessary to be racist to be fascist, but strict legal intolerance of all kinds is fundamental to fascism, as much as keeping a clean matching uniform and patriotic loyalty.

“In the so-called Business Plot in 1933, Major General Smedley Butler claimed that wealthy businessmen were plotting to create a fascist veterans’ organization and use it in a coup d’état to overthrow President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1934, Butler testified to the Special Committee on Un-American Activities (the “McCormackDickstein Committee”) on these claims. In the opinion of the committee, these allegations were credible. During the 1930s Virgil Effinger led the paramilitary Black Legion, a violent offshoot of the Ku Klux Klan that sought a revolution to establish fascism in the United States. Although responsible for a number of attacks, the Black Legion was very much a peripheral band of militants. More important were the Silver Legion of America, founded in 1933 by William Dudley Pelley, and the German American Bund, which emerged the same year from a number of older groups, including the Friends of New Germany and the Free Society of Teutonia. Both of these groups looked to Nazism for their inspiration. While these groups enjoyed some support, they were largely peripheral. Two more prominent leaders, Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin, sparked concern among some on the left at the time. Coughlin, who publicly endorsed fascism to an extent that Long never did, was unable to become involved in active politics because of his status as a priest. Other fascists active in the US included the publisher Seward Collins, the broadcaster Robert Henry Best, the inventor Joe McWilliams and the writer Ezra Pound.

In 1966, Republican Senator Thomas Kuchel said of the Conservative movement, “A fanatical neo-fascist political cult in the GOP, driven by a strange mixture of corrosive hatred and sickening fear, who are recklessly determined to either control our party, or destroy it.” In the view of philosopher Jason Stanleywhite supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it “demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy” in which whites dominate and control non-whites.”  – Wikipedia

The term “fascist” has been used as a pejorative, regarding varying movements across the far right of the political spectrum. George Orwell wrote in 1944 that “the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless … almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist'”.  – Wikipedia

Most Fascists (like Neo-Nazis, those that call themselves that, not just white power clubs or corporations) embrace the label accepting the negative associations with it; much like Satanists (who are often Atheist) embrace the symbolic darkness and pageantry (Paganism) against authority (Christianity) that comes with their term. When they call themselves ‘Fascist’ it is in opposition to the establishment which projects itself as the opposite, but members of the movement or group insist that others are false. This label issue is one of the problems of ‘belief’ theories and systems in general. The more i research the more this satire play becomes clear, whether they use the rhetoric of calls to violence, actual racism; or they are saying they are against the popular definition and in favor of a more right-wing Marxism that would somehow be different than what Hitler and Mussolini or Stalin actually did; they are rebels crying out to say they deserve more under Capitalism. Perhaps that is what Fascism always was, even more than Marxism, just a bunch of ideas from other ideologies, different enough to make change. The theory of Fascism is like Communism under Stalin, because there was no attempts at real democracy and they wanted their own way through violence. In the end it is hard to get around the ‘might makes right’ idea with Fascist theory. Violent nationalism seems core, and everything else can come or go as subservient fashion with fascism.

The post-modern study of ‘Relativity’ was not invented, it seems to be an inherent aspect of reality that has always existed (as dualities or pantheons in religion). Perhaps this is why Einstein’s modern general theory has held up over the decades; as physics theories and laws are part of reality as much as communication and culture, although science tries to be more objective. Moral and Linguistic relativism result in confusion in societies due to differences in perspectives regarding definitions and attitudes towards power, culture, and life. Fascism and Capitalism, Despotism and Democracy, and every other political socio-economic movement or system label has this ‘them and us’ problem of identity. Another specific problem of Fascist theory is what people think is the difference between ‘corporatism’ and ‘capitalism’, if there can be a clear distinction in a Capitalist world economy (even when corporatists believe it just means group representation).

Examples:

The Fascist Manifesto of 1919, by De Ambris & Marinetti – “The Manifesto supported the creation of universal suffrage for both men and women (the latter being realized only partly in late 1925, with all opposition parties banned or disbanded); proportional representation on a regional basis; government representation through a corporatist system of ‘National Councils’ of experts, selected from professionals and trades-people, elected to represent and hold legislative power over their respective areas, including labour, industry, transportation, public health, communications, etc.; and the abolition of the Italian Senate.”  – Wikipedia

Benito Mussolini – “As dictator of Italy and founder of fascism, ‘Il Duce’ (The Leader) Mussolini inspired several totalitarian rulers such as Adolf HitlerA journalist and politician, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) from 1910 to 1914, but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party’s stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating “revolutionary nationalism” transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state.”  – Wikipedia

American Nazi Party  [note the use of nationalist and socialist propaganda]

American Fascist Blackshirts  [note this group claims to be against democracy AND capitalism because those labels claim false pretense of virtue. This circular hypocrisy that comes with worshiping egotistical ‘will power’ is similar to the charms of Satanism, but as self destructive and void of ethics as the original Fascism. The attraction of this group is that they question politics and existing society philosophically just as Nietzsche and Marx did, while looking to the future for some hopeful promise of progress. They claim that fascists were historically misunderstood, and seem to ignore the violence and hypocrisy of their own historic infamous leaders (just as every ideology does to keep the movement going). This group has audio recordings that sound very Marxist regarding hatred of Capitalism, and yet very right-wing equating Capitalism with Liberalism.]

Facebook Fascist Page  [“The American Fascism Party is dedicated to creating a fascist utopia where corporations rule every facet of the American citizens’ lives. #COMA #AFPparty” note this may be run completely as a satire by an opponent to Fascism.]

“Italian Fascism involved a corporatist political system in which the economy was collectively managed by employers, workers and state officials by formal mechanisms at the national level. Its supporters claimed that corporatism could better recognize or “incorporate” every divergent interest into the state organically, unlike majority-rules democracy which they said could marginalize specific interests. This total consideration was the inspiration for their use of the term “totalitarian“, described without coercion (which is connotated in the modern meaning) in the 1932 Doctrine of Fascism as thus: “When brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State. The state is not simply a mechanism which limits the sphere of the supposed liberties of the individual… Neither has the Fascist conception of authority anything in common with that of a police ridden State… Far from crushing the individual, the Fascist State multiplies his energies, just as in a regiment a soldier is not diminished but multiplied by the number of his fellow soldiers.”  – Wikipedia

A popular slogan of the Italian Fascists under Mussolini was “Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato” (“everything for the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state”).

The Capitalist corporatist (Catholic) state Salazar established in Portugal was very similar to fascism because it was nationalism. Salazar’s ‘Catholic corporatism’ was top down, and against all other ideologies except Capitalism and Christianity. Portugal remained neutral throughout World War II. Salazar also had a strong dislike of Marxism and liberalism. In 1933, Salazar stated: “Our Dictatorship clearly resembles a fascist dictatorship in the reinforcement of authority, in the war declared against certain principles of democracy, in its accentuated nationalist character, in its preoccupation of social order. However, it differs from it in its process of renovation. The fascist dictatorship tends towards a pagan Caesarism, towards a state that knows no limits of a legal or moral order, which marches towards its goal without meeting complications or obstacles. The Portuguese New State, on the contrary, cannot avoid, not think of avoiding, certain limits of a moral order which it may consider indispensable to maintain in favor of reforms”.

 

References:

Wikipedia – multiple articles related to Fascism and Fascists

Youtube videos –  “Fascists” Yale Lecture on Hitler; “Fascism” University of Texas Lecture;  “Fascist Voices: Mussolini’s Italy”;  “ANTIFA: History & Politics of Anti-Fascism”; 

 

 

more to be added later….

 

 

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AA Economics – SCOD Transition Systems

Posted in Economics, Philosophy, Psychology, Spiritual, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , on June 2, 2017 by Drogo

Religious vs. Business

Christian, AA, Buddhist vs Capitalist Business

Economics is a belief based philosophy that we can use psychology (behavioral) and accounting (math) to facilitate successful transactions of commerce. Some people want rational and peaceful economic systems in harmony with nature, and others want predatory ‘winner takes all’ systems as over-bearing master abusers. Before Marx wrote about communism and socialism, Christianity was founded on communal living and social services (similar to tribal Pagans). Christian social services are based on the concept that ‘giving is its own reward’ because God loves them, wants them to give without material or monetary benefit, and will reward them in the after-life for their sacrifice. AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) uses a Christian prohibitionist type of addiction therapy, run on member based donations and volunteer work. Buddhism has a similar charity concept that encourages vows of poverty and sacrifice.

Rather than predatory State Capitalism, or dogmatic Church Monarchy, we could change towards more moral humane systems. We can reward ‘givers’ more than ‘takers’. We need to be aware of the poor who give it all away, and the rich that take more than their fair share; because the system currently works in reverse. So we can develop a middle-ground between the two extremes of Religion and Business ideology. Communism clearly has the modesty of religious morality, and Socialism has the best aspects of trade & barter ethics. Clearly the best type of Capitalism (if it is to survive) will embrace egalitarianism for the majority of the population, that makes more property public and rewards those that give to others the most.

Predatory Capitalism is like an addiction, it is very hard to break a harmful habit if we feel we cannot stop ourselves from doing, even when it hurts ourselves and others more than it benefits them. Therefore perhaps a SCOD system of economic transition can be similar to AA, where we can admit we have a problem, and that by helping others we are solving the problem. Then we can begin apologizing to all those we could have given more to, when we only practiced Capitalism.

* This essay is an addition to the book:

SCOD Economics: Alternative Economic Theories

Peaceful Politics: Theory vs Policy

Posted in Cooperatives / Communities / Networks / Travels, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, History, Philosophy, Politics, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 6, 2017 by Drogo

True Distinction of Left vs Right in Theory and Policy

Politics 101 – Left-wing goal is humanitarian freedom, Right-wing is totalitarian military. Both can act like each-other to defend themselves, but those are the ideologies. The definitions apply to people based on the majority of their actions, not just words.

The more violence, the more Right-Wing the actions are by proof of theory. True progressive Left-wing leaders have been Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and Noam Chomsky; all of which advocated non-violence as a primary and constant belief. The Left-wing leaders that deviate are considered less successful by history, because they competed using violence, which is vital to Right-wing theory. Remember, Classical-Liberals are for individual rights like American Libertarians; a concept with is Liberal and therefore Left-wing (corporations are not people).

Peace by social progress is Left Wing, Peace by military progress (War) is Right Wing. Despite labels, anytime Leftists use violence, they become part of a Right-wing game. I am talking about written theory and ideology in the pure form, not actual leaders or incarnations based on regimes. This was the fate of Communism and the reason why global 2-party systems do not really have a true Left wing today. Terminology gets confused, as no side is purely one or the other. True Left means love, civil rights, compassion, non-violence; but because people think Communist states were Left due to ideology that was barely addressed under totalitarianism…. the words are confusing. Non-violence is vital to Leftist theory, and when Leftists are violent, they play into ‘might is right’.

People who want to be on the Right today, seem to think Hitler was actually Socialist, aka Left, because of his party label. Hitler ran as a ‘National Socialist’; this does not mean he actually was Left-wing, or did anything in accordance with Left ideology; it means he was a demagogue liar that perpetuated militant totalitarianism and fascism under a false label. There is incredible double-speak in politics, and I am seeing it in comment sections more and more. One cannot slaughter thousands of citizens, rule by war, and provide public works for elite survivors and be true Leftist based on false platitudes. This strange lack of educated understanding of theory makes no sense, because neo-nazis are clearly the opposite of hippies; the two extremes of Right and Left in modern society. Hitler’s actions were mostly extreme Right-wing militant and fascist, while most hippies (except for violent punks) are extreme Left-wing pacifists. Major double-speak has been going on in the past few decades, and now under Trump. The confusion with the American Libertarian label has also perpetuated the bashing of the term ‘Liberal’ and now they are attempting to co-op it by claiming to be Patriotic like the founders, in their efforts to allow corporations and the 1% to rule us.

Similar issues with Stalin, ok we can say he and Lenin were Communist because they placed economics in control of their ‘State’ government, but the implementation of laws and results were clearly Right-Wing Totalitarian and not in keeping with Marxist ‘power to the people’ democratic-anarchist worker controlled theory, aka true Communism or Socialism.

Liberal non-violence is not as weak a position as war-hawks tend to portray it. Non-violent resistance to authoritarianism is different than extreme pure Pacifism. The best Left-wing leaders often make the distinction that they want to minimize violence, but self-defense can be justified as a rare exception to the rule, rather than a cause for frequent preemptive attacks. The main Left-wing tool is compassionate negotiation, and when that fails we use sanctions and ‘restraining orders’. The critique by the Right of this Left-wing peaceful tactic, is that peace allows Right-wing war-hawks to continue arming for war (Chamberlain’s failure to control Hitler’s aggression before WW2). This is of course the catch-22 problem of war justification, as I explained with diagrams in Operation 10 COW. It takes strong compassionate humanitarian leaders for societies to break out of the self-destructive war-monger paradigm. We rarely see Left-wing volunteers glorified because they are not financed by capital for obvious reasons; the main reason being that plutocrats who have most of the World’s wealth, and got most of their money from being part of the Military Industrial Complex (MIC) because it includes the largest corporations, now provides the funding for all major political leaders and propaganda on commercial media outlets.

Our government run by corporations seems to be playing ‘bad cop / good cop’ with us. Bait and Switch, give us the worst, then make us beg for the less worse. If we are not being with nature more than destroying it, we have to balance our system better. as an architect, i learned how our built environment could be more integrated with nature, and still achieve progress in technologies. I was largely unable to find enough clients to pursue those goals, and was blacklisted because of my environmental dedication. So now i practice where ever i am allowed to work on my own designs.

I am not a committed pacifist. I would not hold that it is under all imaginable circumstances wrong to use violence, even though use of violence is in some sense unjust. I believe that one has to estimate relative justices. But the use of violence and the creation of some degree of injustice can only be justified on the basis of the claim and the assessment-which always ought to be undertaken very, very seriously and with a good deal of skepticism that this violence is being exercised because a more just result is going to be achieved.” – Chomsky

Peace

SCOD Economic Theory Series

Posted in Arts (Design & Performance), Economics, Multimedia Communication, Organic Development, Philosophy, Politics, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on May 3, 2017 by Drogo

Essays on Educational, Employment, and Systemic Economic Problems and Solutions

by Drogo Empedocles; May 2017

In 2017 I am producing a series of recordings and essays on ‘SCOD Economics’. This Economic series includes interviews and biographies across disciplines, and intends to address both present injustices and futurist hopes. We will discuss injustice within our educational and political system, that adversely affects people with alternative thoughts or theories that are not accepted by the conventional establishment corporate ideology frame-work that contains and controls most of the World. We are given their propaganda that “we can all have any job we want, so long as we try hard and get good grades”. Our reality based on my experience is more like “most of us can have at least a minimum-wage job with few benefits, for a limited amount of time, without job security, pathetic interest for savings accounts, the job we find may be against our own interests, and those who cannot get good grades or are bad at following orders get nothing and will probably end up in jail or homeless”. Despite these problems which I have personally witnessed and experienced, the final goal of the series is to plan for a better more sustainable tomorrow for future generations; even if the series conclusions are largely ignored within our life-times.

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SCOD Economic Permaculture & Futurist Interviews:

Tom the Data Scientist, Libertarian

Cheri M. the Permaculturalist

Beamer the Scientist, Liberal

Aeyla the Care Giver, Independent

Scorpion the Homeless, Independent

Drogo the Architect, Green

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SCOD Economic Commentaries:

My Favorite Job Was Teaching

How Crony-Capitalism Affects Education

Homeless Ways of Life

Public Art and Street Teaching

Alternative Economic Education

Graduate School Politics in Colleges & University

Permaculture in Economics, Business, & Politics

Quest For Consciousness

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References:

Economics Professor Mark Blyth

Economics Professor Wolff

MIT Professor Noam Chomsky

(Page Under Construction – links and more will be added soon)

American Dream Fallout

Posted in Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, POB Audio, Politics, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , on December 11, 2016 by Drogo

In the Wake of the Great Recession the American Dream Dies

“The American Dream is a crucial thread in this country’s tapestry, woven through politics, music and culture. Though the phrase has different meanings to different people, it suggests an underlying belief that hard work pays off and that the next generation will have a better life than the previous generation. But three years after the worst recession in almost a century, the American Dream now feels in jeopardy to many…” “Economic statistics validate those feelings. According to the Census Bureau, an average man working full time made 10 percent less money last year than he did a decade ago.” [Read full story at NPR – American Dream Faces Harsh New Reality]

“New economic research shows Americans are no longer as likely to make more than their parents did at the same age…The American dream is harder to attain than it used to be. People may have felt that for a long time. Now there’s a body of research to back that up. One definition of the American dream is that your children will make more money than you did. Now economists have charted the percentage of people who make more than their parents did at the same age, and the picture is striking…” (adjusted for inflation) If you were born in 1940, you had a 92% chance that you would make more money than your parents did, because of national economic growth. For those born in 1980 it has fallen to 50%. Besides changes in educational and industrial labor, the main economic reason most people are not out-earning their parents is that corporate productivity gains go disproportionately to the few people at the top. Income inequality between the poor and the rich is the main problem. [Read full story at NPR – Economists Chart ‘Index Of The American Dream‘]

“Income Inequality Impairs The American Dream of Upward Mobility.” [Read and Listen to the full story at NPR – Debate: Does Income Inequality Impair The American Dream?]

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Like a phoenix we can rise from the ashes and co-create a new American Dream!

 

SCOD Economic Theory

Posted in Economics, Organic Development, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on January 16, 2016 by Drogo

Imagine for a minute that Capitalism was not ‘the only economic system that works’, as popular opinion believes; but instead that Capitalism is a failed system by humanitarian standards, that greedy people perpetuate so that no government can ever serve its’ citizens democratically. Most conservative capitalists would rather see church morality imposed on the masses, because that is their only response to the failings of Capitalism. When homeless get no government support, the capitalists will say “if they are too lazy to work, then they should find a church to take pity on them.” When a crazy person wants to exercise their amendment rights, rather than recommending they get help or take free medicine, the capitalists will say “they need to commit a crime so that we can put them in prison”. What if instead of trying to cover up for the failings of a selfish individualist economic system, we instead worked hard to practice an economic system that is for the common good, with its own built-in ethical code? SCOD economic theory is a combination of trade-barter and spiritual morality*. SCOD theory uses a sensible code of economic ethics* to foster transactions.

Offer only as much as you can spare, do not gamble all that you have. The higher your price is, the less you want to exchange it. Before finalizing a trade, consider how the transaction will affect the other party; if that trade will hurt them and they are ethical traders, then cut them a bonus break-deal. A bonus break-deal is when you give them MORE than they asked for, because you appreciate them as an ethical individual.

Mutual trade with ethical responsibility and humanitarian benefit.

*morality is more to do with religious dogma of reward and punishment, and ethics is more about common sense and having social respect for the good of the whole community.

Garden Cities by Ebenezer Howard

Posted in Arts (Design & Performance), Book Reports, Cooperatives / Communities / Networks / Travels, Critical Commentary of Civilization, ecovillages, Sustainability with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 1, 2011 by Drogo

From the book Garden Cities of To-morrow by Ebenezer Howard 1898, 1902

Ebenezer Howard was a shop keeper’s assistant, farmer, writer, sociologist, and statesman. Howard valued good living conditions, democracy, nature, human rights, and personalities. Howard lived in England and America (London, Nebraska, and Chicago). Osburn and Mumford added notes that introduce, critique, review, and praise Howard. JH Osburn claims Howard may have been influenced by Bellamy’s book Looking Backward. According to Lewis Mumford, Howard was also inspired by Spense, Buckingham, Wakefield, George, Kropotkin, and Howard’s wife Elizabeth Ann Bills of Nuneaton (who loved intellect and country-side). Howard’s narrow building lots were handed down from medieval English dimensions (20 x 130 ft).

Garden Cities of To-morrow begins by describing the “Three Magnets”: Town, Country, and Town-Country. Howard explains why we are attracted to the best of both Town and Country aspects. Town-Country benefits have cooperation, beauty, nature, green fields, green parks, good utilities, good commerce, social opportunity, high wages, low rents, low price rates, and low pollution!

In most chapters, Howard proposes how Garden Cities would function with diagrams. He describes inter-connected urban nodes. Central City is shown with a constellation of satellite micro-cities (garden cities, towns, villages, developments). Garden Cities at their heart have a central garden, with rings of dwellings, shops, roads, industry, fields, and farms. The ordered layout is meant to improve biological, social, economic, and personal life for everyone.

Howard considered some difficulties with analytic self-criticism. He saw the weak points in his plans, and how they might fail. This foresight can allow us to prepare for the worst problems, to better shape designs for the future. He maintained that human ideals are worth trying; quoting Darwin “Selfish and contentious men will not cohere, and without coherence nothing can be accomplished,”. Howard believed that Socialism and Individualism must come together in the future to realize a true, vital organic society and state.

Ebenezer Howard felt that Garden Cities would work, because the plans were based on understanding human nature. He indicated that Urban or Communal failures are a result of the ‘Duality Principle’ (Janus). Ignorance of the Duality Principle allows kindred mistakes, by regarding one principle action to the exclusion of others. Howard believed we are all communists to some degree, even those that shudder at being told this, because we believe in roads, parks, and libraries. Individualism is no less excellent, in his mind, as he compares good society to an orchestra that plays together, but practice separately. Expense, however, always tends to get in the way of progress.

Sir Raymond Unwin worked with Howard. In 1903 they designed and established the first Garden City in England, named ‘Letchworth’. Letchworth proved a success, and in 1919 the second Garden City ‘Welwyn’ was founded. By 1950 the cities had a combined population of over 40,000. The account of their success is given in Purdom’s Building of Satellite Towns. Some key points regarding the study of Garden Cities are: how urban and rural districts connect, health and sanitation, zoning limitations of density and sprawl allowing light, gardens, and leisure, harmony rather than standardization, communications, ownership and cooperative leasing, public freedom and choice of enterprise.

Contemporary critics dismissed “Garden Cities” as more akin to the fantasy of H.G. Wells, than to the realities of urban planning. Despite the critics, Garden Cities of To-morrow is cited in countless planning bibliographies, and provides an organic alternative to bleak industrial future city-scapes. So what happened? Our suburbs in America do not follow his models, although some are better than others. Howard wanted to keep the city, town, and country distinct from each other, unlike amorphous suburban sprawl. He wanted more green around and in cities, by confining and condensing urban development, to keep the country rural, pastoral, and agrarian; yet integrating their foundations for healthy and function living.

“The pathway of any experiment worth achieving, is strewn with failures. Success is, for the most part, built on failure.”  – Ebenezer Howard

“Creative work always arises by the synthesis in one’s mind of material from otherwise unrelated sources…”  – J.H. Osburn

Related Article:  Garden City Chapters

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