Archive for capitalist

Capitalism vs Communism Death Tolls

Posted in Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, History, Military, Politics, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 11, 2019 by Drogo

The genocide totals by Communist and Fascist regimes should be considered in the historic context of the political labels as a response to Capitalism, and why that was. Both ideologies operated economically as National Capitalism, of state market authoritarian control (totalitarianism). Genocide death tolls in this article include mass murder, war fatalities, and fatal causalities by various means (armed and unarmed killings).

Communism (Marxism in general) was a response to the horrors of Capitalism (wage exploitation, resource wars, and mass poverty). Marxists wanted democratic worker owned industry and government, not the dictatorships that they got. Fascism (National Industry) was the loyal child of Capitalism (not free-market, but monopolistic state crony capitalism run like a corporation, anti-democracy).

If we blame Nazis for starting WW2 then all military deaths on both sides (Allies + Axis) can be blamed on Fascism, which would bring the total killings for Fascists (4 regimes) to over 55 million (30m civilian genocide + 25m WW2 military). Communists still come in highest (25 regimes) at 75-100 million. Again all of them functioned as Capitalist Dictatorships, with very little social welfare for the masses, compared to the money spent on elites (business bosses and paid politicians) or the militaries.

Blaming economic-political systems gets messy, because how they function may not represent the ideology of their label. Capitalism and Christianity are responsible for more deaths than Communism and Atheism, as they existed for longer periods with more countries including Monarchies. So we could just add up all the death tolls of countries that call themselves Capitalist, and not include Fascist genocides.

ATTEMPTING THE IMPOSSIBLE – CALCULATING CAPITALISM’S DEATH TOLL

“Ignoring big wars due to capitalism and only focusing on US action and only including one year for things that are systemic (ie. poverty), which is being really damn conservative because Japan engaged in brutal imperialism, we get a total of 205,000,000 killed directly or indirectly because of capitalism.” – Guerilla Ontology

“Capitalist Genocide includes, but is not limited to:

United States:

US intervention in Latin America: 6.3 million dead
Invasion of Philippines: 650,000-3 million dead
Afghanistan: 1.2 million dead
Vietnam War: 10 million dead
Korean War: 10 million dead
Yugoslavia: 300,000 dead
Iran-Iraq War (US funding both sides): 1 million dead
US intervention in Congo: 5 million dead
US Civil War (financial vs land capitalists) 650,000 dead
Native American genocide: 95 million dead
African slave trade: 150 million dead
Indonesian purges against communists: 1 million dead (underestimate)
US Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: at least 1 million dead
US backed dictators: at least a few million

Britain:

Bengal Famine: 10 million dead
British Occupation of India: 20 million dead
Famine in Held British India: 30 million
Irish potato famine (British farmers could have helped): 1.5 million

Japanese imperialism in China and Asia: 12 million
South African apartheid: 3.5 million
Spanish Civil War: 350,000
French colonies: 1 million dead

Note that this does not include the number of children and adults alike in the First World, Second World, or Third World who have died from hunger and lack of access to basic needs of life. In total, the death toll of capitalism exceeds 1 billion. ” – Death Tolls of Socialism And Capitalism

What has killed more people: Communism or Capitalism?

600,000,000 Capitalist killings are added in the 3rd article.

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Communist genocide probably includes military battle deaths, but not Capitalist countries who use some form of Marxism (USA, England, etc), but does include Communist countries who use National Capitalism economically, and some forms of State Marxism internally for distribution. Communism death tolls are usually over-estimated by combining 25 dictatorial regimes that have called themselves ‘Communist’ or ‘Socialist’.

According to R. J. Rummel‘s book Death by Government (1994), about 110 million people, foreign and domestic, were killed by communist democide from 1900 to 1987.

In his introduction to the Black Book of Communism (1999), Stéphane Courtois gave a “rough approximation, based on unofficial estimates” approaching 100 million killed.

According to Benjamin Valentino in 2005, the number of non-combatants killed by communist regimes in the Soviet Union, People’s Republic of China and Cambodia alone ranged from a low of 21 million to a high of 70 million.

In 2011, Matthew White published his rough total of 70 million “people who died under communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats”, not counting those killed in wars.

Communist Mass Killings (genocides) total = 70-100 million apx.

So the largest estimate for Capitalism is 1.6 Billion (1,600,000,000) killings, which is much higher than the newer political-economic governments of Communism, Socialism, or Fascism. We could be generous to both and say that Communism and Capitalism have both killed over 200 million people combined, by discounting the history of Capitalism before 1900 and after 1950, and not blaming Communists or Fascist Capitalists for WW2.

grayscale photography of pedestal balustrade

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SCOD Economic Theory

Posted in Economics, Organic Development, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on January 16, 2016 by Drogo

Imagine for a minute that Capitalism was not ‘the only economic system that works’, as popular opinion believes; but instead that Capitalism is a failed system by humanitarian standards, that greedy people perpetuate so that no government can ever serve its’ citizens democratically. Most conservative capitalists would rather see church morality imposed on the masses, because that is their only response to the failings of Capitalism. When homeless get no government support, the capitalists will say “if they are too lazy to work, then they should find a church to take pity on them.” When a crazy person wants to exercise their amendment rights, rather than recommending they get help or take free medicine, the capitalists will say “they need to commit a crime so that we can put them in prison”. What if instead of trying to cover up for the failings of a selfish individualist economic system, we instead worked hard to practice an economic system that is for the common good, with its own built-in ethical code? SCOD economic theory is a combination of trade-barter and spiritual morality*. SCOD theory uses a sensible code of economic ethics* to foster transactions.

Offer only as much as you can spare, do not gamble all that you have. The higher your price is, the less you want to exchange it. Before finalizing a trade, consider how the transaction will affect the other party; if that trade will hurt them and they are ethical traders, then cut them a bonus break-deal. A bonus break-deal is when you give them MORE than they asked for, because you appreciate them as an ethical individual.

Mutual trade with ethical responsibility and humanitarian benefit.

*morality is more to do with religious dogma of reward and punishment, and ethics is more about common sense and having social respect for the good of the whole community.

Garden Cities by Ebenezer Howard

Posted in Arts (Design & Performance), Book Reports, Cooperatives / Communities / Networks / Travels, Critical Commentary of Civilization, ecovillages, Sustainability with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 1, 2011 by Drogo

From the book Garden Cities of To-morrow by Ebenezer Howard 1898, 1902

Ebenezer Howard was a shop keeper’s assistant, farmer, writer, sociologist, and statesman. Howard valued good living conditions, democracy, nature, human rights, and personalities. Howard lived in England and America (London, Nebraska, and Chicago). Osburn and Mumford added notes that introduce, critique, review, and praise Howard. JH Osburn claims Howard may have been influenced by Bellamy’s book Looking Backward. According to Lewis Mumford, Howard was also inspired by Spense, Buckingham, Wakefield, George, Kropotkin, and Howard’s wife Elizabeth Ann Bills of Nuneaton (who loved intellect and country-side). Howard’s narrow building lots were handed down from medieval English dimensions (20 x 130 ft).

Garden Cities of To-morrow begins by describing the “Three Magnets”: Town, Country, and Town-Country. Howard explains why we are attracted to the best of both Town and Country aspects. Town-Country benefits have cooperation, beauty, nature, green fields, green parks, good utilities, good commerce, social opportunity, high wages, low rents, low price rates, and low pollution!

In most chapters, Howard proposes how Garden Cities would function with diagrams. He describes inter-connected urban nodes. Central City is shown with a constellation of satellite micro-cities (garden cities, towns, villages, developments). Garden Cities at their heart have a central garden, with rings of dwellings, shops, roads, industry, fields, and farms. The ordered layout is meant to improve biological, social, economic, and personal life for everyone.

Howard considered some difficulties with analytic self-criticism. He saw the weak points in his plans, and how they might fail. This foresight can allow us to prepare for the worst problems, to better shape designs for the future. He maintained that human ideals are worth trying; quoting Darwin “Selfish and contentious men will not cohere, and without coherence nothing can be accomplished,”. Howard believed that Socialism and Individualism must come together in the future to realize a true, vital organic society and state.

Ebenezer Howard felt that Garden Cities would work, because the plans were based on understanding human nature. He indicated that Urban or Communal failures are a result of the ‘Duality Principle’ (Janus). Ignorance of the Duality Principle allows kindred mistakes, by regarding one principle action to the exclusion of others. Howard believed we are all communists to some degree, even those that shudder at being told this, because we believe in roads, parks, and libraries. Individualism is no less excellent, in his mind, as he compares good society to an orchestra that plays together, but practice separately. Expense, however, always tends to get in the way of progress.

Sir Raymond Unwin worked with Howard. In 1903 they designed and established the first Garden City in England, named ‘Letchworth’. Letchworth proved a success, and in 1919 the second Garden City ‘Welwyn’ was founded. By 1950 the cities had a combined population of over 40,000. The account of their success is given in Purdom’s Building of Satellite Towns. Some key points regarding the study of Garden Cities are: how urban and rural districts connect, health and sanitation, zoning limitations of density and sprawl allowing light, gardens, and leisure, harmony rather than standardization, communications, ownership and cooperative leasing, public freedom and choice of enterprise.

Contemporary critics dismissed “Garden Cities” as more akin to the fantasy of H.G. Wells, than to the realities of urban planning. Despite the critics, Garden Cities of To-morrow is cited in countless planning bibliographies, and provides an organic alternative to bleak industrial future city-scapes. So what happened? Our suburbs in America do not follow his models, although some are better than others. Howard wanted to keep the city, town, and country distinct from each other, unlike amorphous suburban sprawl. He wanted more green around and in cities, by confining and condensing urban development, to keep the country rural, pastoral, and agrarian; yet integrating their foundations for healthy and function living.

“The pathway of any experiment worth achieving, is strewn with failures. Success is, for the most part, built on failure.”  – Ebenezer Howard

“Creative work always arises by the synthesis in one’s mind of material from otherwise unrelated sources…”  – J.H. Osburn

Related Article:  Garden City Chapters

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