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Immanuel Kant

Posted in History, Philosophy, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , on December 13, 2017 by Drogo

Immanuel Kant was one of the greatest rational philosophers of the Enlightenment, and set a categorical standard for modern reasoning. All of Kant’s years from birth to death (1724-1804), were spent in the small provincial town Konigsberg, in East Prussia. Kant’s grand-father was of Scotch lineage, but if he had kept the original spelling (Cant), the C would have been pronounced as a Z by the citizens of Konigsberg. Also Kant’s original first name was Emanuel, but he changed it to Immanuel after learning Hebrew. Both of Kant’s parents were modest financially and religiously; but spiritually nurtured by a Christian Lutheran sect called the Pietists. Being a Pietist Christian, Kant had a mixed sense of pride in religious rigor, and humility about humble limitations.

Kant was first educated at the local College; then in 1740 Kant went to the University of Konigsburg, where he studied the classics, physics, and philosophy. The master of German Philosophy at the time was Christian von Wolff; who was a dominant secretary of the Enlightenment movement, and stated that “man could be happy and good without the divine grace of revelation”. This atheist statement angered the ‘Soldier King’ of Prussia, King Frederick William I; however his condemnation only enhanced Wolff’s international fame. Immanuel Kant revered Wolff as the “most powerful representative of dogmatic rationalism, from the stand-point of pure unshaken confidence in the strength of Reason.” Kant eventually replaced Wolff as the popular national philosopher.

In Kant’s home town of Konigsburg, the city burghers were said to set their watches when Kant passed by their windows on his precisely-timed daily walks. He did not write his most famous works until he was older. When people that knew him read his work, they often agreed that it was logical and well-ordered, just like Kant himself. Kant applied his logic to a mature reflection on whether or not to marry; he decided finally to remain single. Kant’s travels did not exceed the city boundaries, his life had no remarkable adventures or political power or social connections, yet he was an immensely successful tutor, lecturer, and a charming host.

Immanuel Kant was a man of clear, critical, logical, vigorous, rigorous, and trenchant thought. In his Critique of Pure Reason he methodically divides chapters to explore ‘a priori’ metaphysical issues. ‘A priori’ is the pure form of sensuous general intuitions, that existed prior to our physical existence; archetypal knowledge from before we were born. Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason was followed by the Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and the Critique of Judgment (1790).

“Act always in such a way. that you should want your action to become a universal law.” – Immanuel Kant. This categorical imperative is one of the main recommendations of Kant’s writings. Although it centers around action, Kant also said that virtue was in the ‘Will’, and not the ‘Act’. Consciousness involves feeling, thinking, and acting. Feeling regards faith, thinking seeks epistemology, and acting involves ethics.

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(2) Philosophy & Psychology

Posted in Philosophy, Psychology, SCOD Thesis with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on March 31, 2011 by Drogo

Introduction to SCOD Philosophy  &  Psychology 101

In many ways Philosophy covers psychology, politics, religions, ethics, morality, sciences, and environmentalism. Philosophy is important because it is our attempts to explain patterns of thought and action. As theories, some are proven and some are not. Philosophical theories in Architecture explain how and why we build certain ways, and suggest new ways.

Psychology can help us to modify our thoughts and behaviors to better achieve goals in life. There are various philosophies of psychology, to better suit the diversity of humanity. Even sciences like Psychiatry were developed from the writings and teachings of ancient philosophers and medieval alchemists, so it is from the beginning that our studies should start.

Psychology is a Philosophy that seeks to understand human thoughts and behaviors. If we learn from psychology, we can build architecture better suited for us. Be not afraid. There are some Important Philosophers we can study to self-educate ourselves, to help form our own SCOD communities.

Philosopher Kings & Queens
Asian: Lao Tsu, Sun Tsu, Buddha and Confucius
Hebrew, Christian, and Muslim: Moses, Jesus, Mohammad
Greek: Thales, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, &
Archimedes; Celt: Vercingetorix, Boudicca
Roman: Cicero, Julius Caesar, Marcus Aurelius (Stoics)
Medieval: King Arthur, Saint Francis, Joan of Arc
Modern: Machiavelli, Francis Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Descartes,
Hegel, Hume, Kant, Kierkegaard, Goethe, Nietzsche, Ghandi,
Marx, Jung, Phenomenology (more in References)
Science: Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Einstein

Seven Ancient Sages
The ‘Classical’ philosophies of ancient Greeks are the first on historic record to start asking the most basic yet profound questions of Life, the Universe, and everything. Modern philosophies tend to ask more complex questions about our experiences in Existence, and many of the basic questions are redefined by scientific theories. It is wise to know past examples of thought, although we are capable of coming to many of the same conclusions without having read them, or may have already formulated some similar theories independently. The original Seven Sages of Greece were:
Thales, Pittacus, Periander, Cleobulus, Solon, Bias, Chilon; but for this thesis the 7 chosen Greeks are: Thales, Pythagoras, Empedocles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, & Epicurus.

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