Archive for money

Income, Health, Peace

Posted in Ethics & Morals, jobs, Medical, Politics, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 24, 2019 by Drogo

SCOD Political Points – Income, Health, and Peace

These 3 political topics are connected.

INCOME – is the way in Capitalism that most people in the world sustain payment of bills for the basics of life (food, water, shelter), whether by employed work (jobs), market earnings, sales price pay, or grants for being who you are and a living human. Inadequate income leads to zero savings, debt, and homelessness; unless another economic sub-system solves that problem of modern life. Jobs require good health, otherwise people will not be able to do the job well, so they will not even be hired, or eventually be fired. Social Security is worth expanding into Universal Basic Income (UBI).

 

HEALTH –  includes Environmental Health and therefore Ecology. Health Care services require income, even if the money is to pay taxes which go to a public system. Maintaining a person’s healthy body depends on how dangerous their environment is, and how much stress they have (both of those factors are peace related). Prevention and early treatment can reduce health problems and bills. However if people live long enough, they will eventually have health problems which can be eased by medicines and doctors and nurses.

 

PEACE – means peace of mind and physical non-violence in larger proportion to war or disturbance, for more happiness and love. Peace of mind or psychological health depends on enough income to feel that responsibilities can be met, and physical health (of course). Many of us feel that although death may bring ultimate peace, some aspects of life can too when we reduce fighting and promote more tranquility.

 

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The Problem of Monetary Bias in Science

Posted in Artificial Chemical Products, Climate Change, Commercial Corporations, Ethics & Morals, Legal / Laws, Military, news, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 31, 2018 by Drogo

Regarding Corporate Science Corruption

By using the word ‘science’ this articles means ‘professional scientific research and technological testing’. The problem of monetary bias means how we define corruption by funding or bribery to profit over ethics. Bias can affect professional test results.

“How do we find out about the real science behind corporate chemicals?” is a great question. There are major court cases that are on-going and are finally exposing how scientists (not just politicians) are affected by where they get their funding, as other historic cases have shown before. Activists are attacked by people claiming to be the voice of scientific reason who defend corporate science, although conveniently they seem to know less about the biased details involved with how the business world affects science and our environment (not just politics). It is very difficult to get people interested in large scale safe environments, in part due to the immediate need for MONEY to supply specific food, drink, and shelter for individuals and loved ones…. until those things are taken from us. But without money we lack much power within the system, and we are accused of emotional bias, as though corporate lackeys are objective. ‘Ring of Fire’ on Youtube has lawyers involved so they are covering the news about these issues, with a bias that is dedicated to exposing how corporations function by using science for their profit as the structure of their power. It is not true that companies use science for purely objective reasons, or that they would allow themselves to be subjected to ‘objective’ science if it did not benefit them, and in fact they do everything within their power to make sure that they can control studies in their favor.

Militaries made chemical companies rich during the World Wars, which led to those companies monopolizing commercial agriculture. German companies took some of the most lethal pesticides used in the fields, and developed them to kill humans. Those toxic companies survived, although they may have changed their name or were bought. The US even secretly hired Nazi scientists after WW2, some of which were certainly guilty of crimes against humanity [Annie Jacobsen ‘Operation Paperclip’]. Money, corruption, and abuse of power can be hard to separate as intertwined issues.

Is there any way to know if the ‘peer-reviewed’ information has filtered out any bias towards the company? This is the best way to ask the question about our most ‘objective science’ regarding company neurotoxins and carcinogens. No offense to scientists, but it happens like with the Oil and Tobacco companies, pay-checks often come first for families. It does not benefit employed scientists to admit to bias, it just simply affects their way of interpreting data and conducting tests. Nuclear scientists are more prone to be in favor of things that cause nuclear radiation by down playing the risks which are acceptable costs for them in favor of ‘advancing science’ and getting their funding. Every profession is subject to this problem of economics, so i am not picking on scientists, i am an architect and many of us are rational and brilliant too, but profit influence happens in our field as well because it is the system that hires us that is on trial when it comes to environmental science ethics. Environmental peer review for Climate Change seems to be large enough to have not been as corrupted in the favor of companies as much as specific chemicals that companies produce to sell.

With so many billions of dollars at stake for corporations like Monsanto (GMO and Glyphosphate Science), our courts and scientists may not even be aware of how to be objective when their own family members have bought into the propaganda that allows them to pay their bills and provide and protect their loved ones. As with Oil Companies and Tobacco Companies, we should assume that toxins can affect us and our environment, and those that produce them should perhaps be more responsible by being held accountable. Few people will not be biased in one way or another, but real science should be the goal, not corporate greed. If it sounds like I am describing a fictional dystopia, perhaps the reader should be more realistic about how Capitalism actually works in reality (our EPA is in ruins in 2018). The larger problem of real science and the bias of money that affects us all will continue to exist so long as we allow our government to be influenced by corporate money at the highest levels, more than they are influenced by environmental ethics and a desire for more ethical science which means being more objective than the influence of money (which is asking a lot). People are innocent until proven guilty, but if a provable crime needs to be investigated we need to let the evidence decide if people are using corporations as tools to corrupt politics and science, and harm humanity in favor of profits for the few.

As an architect i take rationality and logic about designs very seriously, so i do not believe scientists are alone in wanting to take credit for knowing how we interact with our environment and how we can make technological innovations for improving humanity by using ‘facts’. “Peer reviewed” does not mean scientists do not all have their own human biases regarding how data is interpreted; that is part of my point. “Purely objective” as a philosophical ideal is worth talking about for the sake of science and law enforcement and ethics etc… This issue of the influence of money on science (and every profession and field of study) will not go away, but it is one we should deal with honestly in studying the sustainability of civilization. Peer reviews are not exempt from being reviewed over decades, with new conclusions drawn.

For more information on the 2-party corporate monopoly which funds science for war more than for peace or health, please research the 2018 US Military Spending Budget which was passed with almost no debate or media attention. Also please research our corporate bailouts during recent stock market crashes. Government and corporate spending tends to be biased towards harmful war science not helpful social science. By using the word ‘science’ this articles means ‘scientific research and technology’.

 

SCOD Economic Theory Series

Posted in Arts (Design & Performance), Economics, Multimedia Communication, Organic Development, Philosophy, Politics, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on May 3, 2017 by Drogo

Essays on Educational, Employment, and Systemic Economic Problems and Solutions

by Drogo Empedocles; May 2017

In 2017 I am producing a series of recordings and essays on ‘SCOD Economics’. This Economic series includes interviews and biographies across disciplines, and intends to address both present injustices and futurist hopes. We will discuss injustice within our educational and political system, that adversely affects people with alternative thoughts or theories that are not accepted by the conventional establishment corporate ideology frame-work that contains and controls most of the World. We are given their propaganda that “we can all have any job we want, so long as we try hard and get good grades”. Our reality based on my experience is more like “most of us can have at least a minimum-wage job with few benefits, for a limited amount of time, without job security, pathetic interest for savings accounts, the job we find may be against our own interests, and those who cannot get good grades or are bad at following orders get nothing and will probably end up in jail or homeless”. Despite these problems which I have personally witnessed and experienced, the final goal of the series is to plan for a better more sustainable tomorrow for future generations; even if the series conclusions are largely ignored within our life-times.

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SCOD Economic Permaculture & Futurist Interviews:

Tom the Data Scientist, Libertarian

Cheri M. the Permaculturalist

Beamer the Scientist, Liberal

Aeyla the Care Giver, Independent

Scorpion the Homeless, Independent

Drogo the Architect, Green

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SCOD Economic Commentaries:

My Favorite Job Was Teaching

How Crony-Capitalism Affects Education

Homeless Ways of Life

Public Art and Street Teaching

Alternative Economic Education

Graduate School Politics in Colleges & University

Permaculture in Economics, Business, & Politics

Quest For Consciousness

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References:

Economics Professor Mark Blyth

Economics Professor Wolff

MIT Professor Noam Chomsky

(Page Under Construction – links and more will be added soon)

95 Million Americans Not Employed

Posted in jobs, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , on December 10, 2016 by Drogo

95,055,000 Americans have no employer-job income in 2016!

For some reason, the public media ‘Unemployment Reports’ from the US Department of Labor are not listing the largest and most important number. According to their own data charts (which do not copy well as a direct link for specific info, perhaps on purpose) the Bureau of Labor Statistics ‘Household Data’ Table A-1; in November 2016 there were over 95 Million Americans ‘not employed’ total. To clarify, over 95,000,000 adults have no ‘outside-the-family-home’ income (using the ‘not in the labor force’ chart). Many adult workers have no formal income in America. Over 38 million men and almost 57 million women, of those jobless are adults over the age of 16 (using the seasonally adjusted charts).

Here is an article link that explains the ‘Real Unemployment Rate‘.

The total population of the USA is 324,954,000. The US civilian population of adult citizens between the ages of 15-65 is apx. 206,189,000 (male + female) [Wikipedia]; of those 152 million are ’employed’ (includes over 7 million unemployed), and 95 million are not included. About 152 million employees are having to support 95 million other adults of all ages AND all the 62 million children. Although we have men and women working formal or informal paying or volunteer jobs, the ratio of income is perhaps about the same as before Equal Rights (152/157). Worse yet the economy shows no signs of improving, and based on the facts appears to be getting worse every year (accounting for inflation ratios).

There is a pattern trend in relation to the number of years (from 1975-2016) and the unemployed numbers (58 million to 95 million). In 1975 the total ‘jobless population’ was 58,627,000 (over 16 years of age). So since 1975 the ratio of population to non-employed has at least doubled. Our total population has grown in that time (1975-2016) only a little over 100 million more; therefore the disproportionate numbers means that although the total population only grew by 1/3, the jobless population grew by 1/2. ‘Fact-checkers’ claim numbers not included (people in school or elderly over 65) reduce 95 million to 20 million, but I am not convinced and have not yet verified their numbers [Politifact]. I believe counting students over 16 as potential PAID labor force is fair (as they should not be slaves), so if we subtract 40 million elders (population over 65 not verified) that still leaves 55 million adults with no official income that should be getting a living wage if we believe that people have a right to life.

This data makes a parabola chart showing perpetual rapid job loss by the millions within decades. In one generation the masses could all be slaves to corporate plutocracy, with no ability to vote on anything except American Idol, will own less and less property, and will become more impoverished with each generation. One conclusion could be that we are indeed long overdue for major reform, we have been misled by our leaders, and real revolution is needed. The Green Party, SCOD, and others are by necessity already exploring alternative grass-roots economies. We could also break up the Federal government into smaller sections of states (by time-zones), each with democratic directly elected presidential councils; but most agree we should make more democratic changes however we can. The current corporate system trend resembles a Plutocracy that keeps the masses enslaved only to benefit the wealthy elites. If we all will it to change, we can democratize corporations from within by controlling them as the ‘body mass’.

jobless-chart-copy

Lessons of the Great Depression

Posted in Economics, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , on January 8, 2016 by Drogo

Causes, Effects, and Importance of the Great Depression 1929-39

The common assumption is that the greatest economic depression in modern history was triggered by the stock market crash of 1929, which caused panic sell-off. However there are other theories which are more fact-based and categorically explain the order of events during that period of time. The Great Depression is vital to remember, for all citizens regardless of economic involvement, because it shows that markets can take a 10 year down turn, and rebound overall; yet many people may lose everything in the process.

Keynesian institutional theory focuses on ‘spending demand’ as the key economic factor. Spending demand is related to consumer confidence. Monetarists believe that the Federal Reserve Bank should print more money, and allow the largest companies to profit MORE during a recession, in hopes that they will hire more I suppose; which is stupid because history shows that they keep profits and reduce work force during a ‘down turn’. Banks and companies tend to ‘hunker down’ during economic down-turn, so propping them up is NOT a solution to democratic economic health of citizens who may starve to death while companies replace their jobs with the cheapest solutions. Central bankers and Corporate CEOs are the new royalty in an oligarchy given power by commercial capitalist greed.

The effects are important to note – DO NOT put all your money into stocks, and then pull them out when their value is low, because people have lost all their savings that way!!! Those that do well, use bonds and diversify assets (cds, mutual funds, safe stocks). If they cash out their investments, they do so only when the amount they remove is MORE than what they put in. If someone invests with a company that goes bankrupt and stocks never go back up, that is a permanent loss.

The importance of the Great Depression is that memory of it shows that government economies may seem to fail over a period of 10 years, but after the 10 years, it can inflate back up at the SAME prices as before the deflation period. This may be due to exponential growth of population, greed of the oligarchy, and general stability of civilization. For civilization to fail significantly enough to cause a greater depression, a global catastrophic event would have to happen, the likes of which would have to at least be closer to the fall of the Roman Empire, if not greater. Debts become greater during monetary deflation. There can be no doubt that any greed driven system like Capitalism will be volatile and hostile to all classes confined within it. The failings of democracy within tyrannical Capitalism, shows that Capitalism has failed us only slightly less, but increasingly more, than the despotic models that crushed the inherent popular good will of Marxism before it (see USSR) even began. However if you can play the system with enough money, invest in environmental companies, because some companies are better for life on the planet than others. There are corporate investment companies waiting to take your order!

Sadly war and borrowing got us out of the Depression. Why can’t peace and saving get us out of the Recession?

Systems of Government and Economics

Posted in Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, Philosophy, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , on November 28, 2015 by Drogo

There are some good systems of government and economics, but human failings can corrupt or ruin any system, as there is no perfection of any state in reality. Humans have misused cases of Communism as much as they have misused cases of Capitalism. You can argue that one system is better than another, but perpetuation of one system does not mean that it is successful; for example a king may rule for many years but that does not mean that they were good to their people. Jesus showed that Communism could be a wonderful thing, if limited by size and time; just as many business people may think Capitalism is good, while it most certainly hurts many people who cannot compete. Democracies can fall victim to mob rule of the ignorant masses, just as Republics can be controlled by Capitalist corporations as an Oligarchy and Plutocracy. Greedy and lazy and psychotic people will abuse any of these systems, but poor people have been working harder and spending more proportionately in taxes than rich people or big corporations.

international_institute_for_strategic_studies

In 2017 the Military Industrial Complex (MIC) backed by our President is cutting funding for all humanitarian or ethical agencies, and pumping 50 billion more into the military. America spends over 600 Billion annually on the military budget, while all other countries spend under 200 billion, and most under 100 billion if they even have that much money (international economic budget statistics according to the IISS). The IISS is the ‘International Institute for Strategic Studies’; “a British research institute founded in 1958 for international affairs. Since 1997 its headquarters have been in London, England. The 2013 ‘Global Go To Think Tank Index’ ranked IISS as the ninth-best think tank worldwide” (Wiki). We spend more on ‘health care’ than military, but half the country is poor, and can barely afford the basic costs of living including health insurance. Our government does not work well for most of its population.

SCOD is developing an overall master plan for micro-economics between friends for communities, that can apply and be integrated with the larger existing economy. Surviving and thriving within our means should be our fundamental right to work in life. We should be allowed to survive by having our basic access needs met, in an organic environment aided by group systems, to be able to be self-sufficient; regardless of any desire for more wealth or other work. There will always be lazy and greedy people, but for the majority who are reasonable with the means to be rational, they can be who they are and do what they want without ruining a fair economic model for all. We know that the new economic model cannot be ruled by plutocrats, oligarchs, tyrants, or despots of any kind, even those claiming to be ‘representatives’. Ancient Greece exposed the deadly flaws of democracy when they put Socrates to death, so there must be constant reminders of the worst human tendencies of mobs, and laws that respect civil rights that value life. This is the middle-ground between the existing Patriarchal plutocracy dominated by aggression, and the future Matriarchal utopia of an almost moneyless system based on right to life, right to work, and equal rights for ‘We the People’. This means having natural renewable resources freely available for all.

People value what they want, but dont reach out to others who they dont think they want anything from. It is a natural problem that should be at least talked about more, as to how to value those that do not do what we want, or dont offer what we want, as many are not able to constantly adapt to what others want, because they recognize what they will be given in return is not always fair if they are generous and others are not. I think there is often a stalemate in these groups as to how to approach others. Differences in communication can cause huge problems when negotiating projects. If people can work out a friendly pattern of communication that works to solve complex problems before real tough issues come up, they should use all means necessary. We need to use many approaches; time banks, shared projects, CSA’s, Green Investments, etc.

rich-vs-poor

Rich vs Poor, the economic class game that ignores national wealth inequality and the value of human life. Economic models show that if the richest 1% would not be allowed to hoard the nation’s wealth, it would allow the poorest to be able to afford to live, and it would expand the middle class (Professor Mark Blyth, Brown University). Corporate profits are higher now than they ever were in recorded history (Robert Reich based on national statistics, accounting for inflation, since 1947, relative to percentage economy) ; Average Americans are not getting enough income to buy their products, so companies are buying their own stocks, like during the 1920s, you know…. just before the Stock Market Crash and Great Depression. The main argument against distributed wealth has always been war propaganda against Russia (Red Scare), which was really based on xenophobia, but it is American to believe we are ‘all created equal’ and ‘we the people’ get to decide in democracy.

References:

Military Special Access Programs’ – article on Pentagon secrecy

The Pentagon’s Bottomless Money Pit‘ – article on Pentagon Audit

“The $21 trillion figure may under-count the accounting errors in the system, as some plugs are both automated and unidentified. What’s clear is that the ubiquitous plugging and quantity of bad numbers in the Pentagon’s books are so massive that it will take a labor of the ages to untangle…. Taxpayers, in other words, are paying gargantuan sums to private accounting firms to write reports about how previous recommendations were ignored. It’s all a Catch-22 story about a country trapped in an endless cycle of avoidable financial disaster. Each time we try to fix leaks, we end up back where we started, staring at even bigger numerical representations of failure.” – RollingStone

National Living Wages Value Artists

Posted in Arts (Design & Performance), Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics with tags , , , , , , , , , on November 4, 2015 by Drogo

SCOD economic theory – Living Wage Revolution & The Arts

Artists are people too, and humans in American society have a right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. In the future all free people, including all Artists of all kinds (visual, dance, music, etc), should be supported as human beings, regardless of their abilities, economically by government funds on a ‘living wage’, paid for by wealthy corporation and Wall Street mega-business taxes. The price of food, shelter, and utilities should also be kept low, so as not to neutralize the value of money. Unregulated Capitalism and Inflation devalue human and monetary worth. These changes are needed, because throughout history all those who desire to make art, not as a hobby but as a living, have found that only a very few can do so, when governments are run by belligerent greedy assholes that prefer war over art. Many of the most otherwise peaceful and joyful victims of society get lost in deep cracks between the common work and under-funded shallow health-care systems. The common criticism that oppressing authorities have of socialism is that it ‘will allow people to be lazy while others work hard for the same amount’; and that is total bullshit because first of all those that are able to make more money with work would do so, as those that achieve more or better work will be rewarded extra pay and accolades for their accomplishments. Also working hard does not always produce better results than working smart, and those of us who become demoralized by lack of funding and no hope, would be motivated by the fact that we would be appreciated and given what we need to live our lives. Living wages could be reduced as legal penalties when laws are broken, and removed when incarcerated in prison institutions that provide their basic needs during their stay. In this way the greedy can still be greedy, but not at the expense of others that contribute greatly to civilization who have not been valued by economic systems as a whole since the dawn of history. An economic revolution is needed, and all artists should be leading it!

Circular Economy – Dame Ellen MacArthur

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Post-Bubble Recession Economics

Posted in Crafts, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, Sustainability with tags , , , , , , , , on May 26, 2014 by Drogo

This article has presumptions based on post-911 and post-2007-recession data and experiences gathered by SCOD members.

1. Most of the money is being horded by 1% of the population (ultra-rich).

2. Upper-Middle Class are not hiring or spending as much as they should locally.

3. Monsanto and other Mega-Companies have monopolies that we can only break by collaborating on cooperative projects like eco-villages, organic gardening, gathering, hunting, home-made crafts, repairing reused items, etc….

Here is ‘real-talk’ about post-bubble economics…. people are lagging.  Instead of paying strangers to do things and buying products from companies, we need to intensively correspond about buying products and services from each-other; that is how we transition for real. Granted some companies are better than others, and some people are more talented or skilled than others. Regardless of flaws, the transition must take place.

We with SCOD are doing it, but I rarely find mundane people willing to seek out ways to give back. I am lucky enough to find some, and those I will stay in touch with. Even the most poor of us, can give back in their own ways when given gifts. Post-bubble recession economics, trade-for-trade with friends. Communicate, negotiate, exchange…. work it out. If someone does not pay you enough for your goods or services, tell them. If you think people are acting odd because they won’t talk to you about an issue of commodity, challenge them on it.

Work with those willing to work, and ditch those that will not participate. Enthusiasm and follow through, that is what we need. Do it people, do it. If someone calls you that you can trust, you better fricking call them back asap to get things done.

* SCOD FOOD COOPERATIVE:  Concept, Webpage

Banks are very selfish, because at all times they will always only give what benefits them more. That is because they function on basic Capitalist profit driven values. Even when they always make much more than they need, they NEVER return much of those profits back to the most poor who barely have enough money to put in an account. This is why interest rates from banks will be non-existent if they can help it (as we experience now).

Why are bank account interest rates are lower than they used to be?
Banks get money from the Fed at 0.75%
So the banks don’t need our money as much as they did before the Great Recession and Housing Bubble Collapse.  Also they make more on mortgages, and as long as interest stays low on mortgages, they do not want to raise our interest on accounts, even if it would entice us to invest more with them; they simply do not need our money, they make their own with the Fed.

Pub Business Plan

Posted in Economics, Pub Library, Victorian Tavern with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on May 7, 2013 by Drogo

So you want to open a Medieval, Victorian, or Fantasy Pub? So do I. Here is a step-by-step list of a typical business plan for opening a pub.

1.  Location, location, location. Town, County, State. Near a highway. Enough space, at a reasonable cost (low monthly fees: mortgage, lease, rent, utilities, etc.). Easy access Parking.

2.  Get a business license, liquor license, insurance, inspections, permit for a club, and whatever else is needed legally in that location.

3. Order enough beer, liquor, wine, and a few food items to last a month or two; always keep stocked, and sell it for more than you pay for it.

4.  Advertise locally, in print, and on-line; with proper signage.

5.  Have a reason for people to come and keep coming back; quality food & drink; affordable costs; membership dues or benefits that other places do not offer; atmosphere and special social scene.

6.  File proper income taxes; accounting for employees and sales.

7.  Deal with problems as a benevolent over-lord.

Sounds simple doesn’t it? So why has it not happened yet? The problems come with the initial start-up costs and rent. Even with a steady stream of patrons, there is no guarantee that sales will cover the cost to run the place; and that is the big gamble – the risk.

ArmoryPub5

Analysis of Apostles of Success

Posted in Book Reports, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Economics, History with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 15, 2013 by Drogo

Apostles of the Self-Made Man: Changing Concepts of Success in America

1965 book by John G. Cawelti – University of Chicago Phoenix Press – 280 pages

 Success

SUMMARY

This is a book about the popular culture of success in America. It discusses natural qualities of character, education, values, and needs of individuals and society. It is a decent American history of changing concepts of success; with a focus on three main sources: historic individuals, fictional figures, and manual guides. It uses literature as a source to reference social history.

In spite of their persistent devotion to the idea of success, Americans have differed greatly in the way they defined it. That is the subject of this book. – p.3

Though the self-made man wasn’t an American invention, Americans have cherished the notion of someone rising out of poverty and, through hard work and dedication, achieving at least a moderate amount of wealth and respect. Purely American icons such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson each wrote about the opportunity for anyone in a fluid American class system to grow through their own power towards a particular position in society. Yet, much like Abraham Lincoln in the tumultuous ante-bellum period and the Gilded Age’s robber barons, the self-made man appeared most notably in times of rapid change and transition . – C.1

Three Strands of American Success

  1. Religious – Protestant Work Ethic and pious morality

  2. Economic – wealth = success

  3. Complex Individual and Social Ethics and Dreams, often combining the first 2 stands

American society saw three main versions of the self-made man emerge in epitomizing the ideal of success. The first focused on a Protestant notion of “piety, frugality, and diligence” in fulfilling the duties of one’s occupation. This version suggested that a static, stable social order existed in which success was the attainment of respectability in this world and led to the assurance of salvation in the world to come. As strict Protestantism gave way to other, secular notions of success, this ideal began to fade away.

The second tradition placed a premium on a more economic emphasis of success. While the first focused on religious notions of grace and propriety, the second enlisted the purely lay qualities of aggressiveness, competitiveness, and forcefulness. As industrialization swept over the United States in the Gilded Age and beyond, people prescribed to this ideal of success beyond the scope of religion. The hierarchical structure of many new corporations demanded such qualities from their employees if they hoped to “climb the ladder of success.” The third type of success, was a combination of the former two; taking ethics and humility from religious loyalty, in an existential industrial work environment.

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For more of the report, click on the link here for SCOD Gallery Report with Chapter Links!

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