Archive for the Sustainability Category

SCOD Design and Imagination

Posted in Cooperative collaboration, dreams, ecovillages, Ethics & Morals, Futurist, Organic Architecture, Psychology, relationships, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 6, 2020 by Drogo

SCOD Design and Imagination – Theory Essay [recording]

Why study SCOD design? Be prepared not only for possible problems by designing better now; but also if there are systemic collapses, having a core homestead village for redesigning a new way of life will be important. People who can afford independent homesteads will have them, but those without enough money need more affordable housing now and in the future.

Some willing and able to share space will be the heart of a scod village, others will be on the fringes as independent owners or temporary visitors; but having communal space for everyone is important for social life, public events, and council meetings. If everyone could afford their own property and everything they need like rich people, then most would do that; but the reality is that currently the way our economy works is that most people cannot earn enough to afford an independent life, and so most people need shared public property but rarely get enough from our federal, state, or local governments.

SCOD focuses more on philosophy and psychology than militant or religious preppers, because the hardest test of conventional friendship or survival during an emergency is living with people. Knowing how to get basic needs met is critical, including during the most likely emergency scenarios (natural disaster, pandemic, or war); so that comes first. Once you know where to get your food, water, and shelter; the scod design method of infinite combinations will be based on access flow diagrams (see ‘SCOD Thesis’ for examples). SCOD does not encourage everyone to collect guns or have the same religion, because freedom and peace are mainly to be encouraged without force. Diversity of martial and work training, with healing arts and cultural beliefs are the core of scod negotiations, and the spices for the flavor of life.

Working and planning with all kinds of people does not need to be permanent. Diverse experience does not need to be a risky investment, it can best be achieved with limited projects with cooperative practice. The purpose of tests and exercises are to determine what works, and what does not for those involved. Dedication and trust are earned over time, and we simply cannot be dedicated to trusting everything in every way. We learn what is reasonable to expect with wisdom by trial and error, and we learn our own limits for negotiations. If there is no reason to invest in an unstable situation, it is wise to move on.   

If the factors work well they will, but there are so many possible scenarios that those who enjoy the joy of design and writing can explore possible plans without the costs of construction. We make do with what we have, and when we need more we can get it with will-power. The factors of design are as important to scod life as the basic elements they are based on, because scod design theory is a religion of architecture in that it should remind us the purpose of possessing, sharing, and maintaining structures and spaces. Exploring scod design theory is possible even if we never find the best possible factors with serious partners, and this point is the power of imagination. We can dream and be creative even if we have serious mental disabilities, physical disabilities, or are in prison or under quarantine. Enjoy yourself, scod.

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Progressive Change Pattern

Posted in Critical Commentary of Civilization, History, Legal / Laws, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , on March 8, 2020 by Drogo

If I were to visit all the world leaders in one room, and be able to talk to them I have some idea of what I would say. I would say “Hey your honors, share more with the poor, and give less money towards war!!” I imagine they might snicker before moving on to their next big-wig business of the day, even if they didn’t have security remove me. Would saying a few of the best chosen words affect them enough to accomplish more peace and less pollution?? Even if the press made a big deal about what I said to them, the Trumpian politicians would certainly not change because of my liberal pressure. Peace and Security do not need to be liberal causes, but sadly our system does not let either of our two parties make peaceful security progress that poor people and the middle class (the majority of the population) would benefit from. The reason our representatives want to make more war and keep workers insecure seems to be because they represent their donors the plutocrats, not us. Both parties usually work together on issues that oppress us, and call stalemate on issues that would benefit us, meanwhile one side does not really fight for those issues anyway because they are paid not to, just like the other side.

 

Electing a populist leader that represents us better may be better than corporate candidates who are fake or blatantly serve the plutocrat donors; but they will face resistance from the majority of plutocratic leaders. It is only after enough grassroots democratic leaders have been elected to offices, in a future world where money does not buy power as easily due to a more informed population, that significant changes would happen. There has to be a critical mass of enough people consistently behaving in a way, before the actions sustain a new normal convention. Then that convention will have rebels who unsuccessfully resist it, but things will be better for most, until the next time change is needed badly enough to get enough popular investment to resist substantially. The pattern of civil rights progress in history seems to always be in reaction to a system which has gone too far with oppression of people and destruction of environment. Whether that oppression and destruction is called ‘conservative’ it is based on a tradition of legal violence which creates backlash against authoritarian domination.

 

The Problem of Systemic Change

Posted in Adaptive Reuse, Commercial Corporations, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Ethics & Morals, Futurist, Health & Fitness, History, Military, news, Rationality & Logic, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 29, 2020 by Drogo

Wave Pattern / Cyclical History Theory essay on civilization

Tidal Wave and Sail Boat[ Theme image – My ‘Tidal Wave and Sail Boat’ painting which is based on the ‘Great Wave’ by Hokusai with Van Gogh brush style. ]

Despite similarities of theories, violence vs non-violence is a critical factor for civil rights and modern history. Violent manifestos by the Unabomber or Discovery Channel Shooter, contradict the ethical wisdom of SCOD Theory. SCOD embraces more peaceful egalitarian democratic co-existence, because deconstructivist architecture can only go so far, until it has to be constructivist enough again to be utilized as shelter; the same SCOD theory applies to social systems as well. The problem of systemic change from intentional revolution is whether to advocate violence or non-violence; and how best to make needed changes. History and mythology tend to lionize violent war heroes; but modern history deviates from this due to the Civil Rights movement. 

The Netflix documentary on the Unabomber mentions the voluntary interrogation program (related to US secret agencies) at Ted’s University in relation to his psychology. I had not heard of it before, but it does sound very much like Project ‘Wormwood’ and other ‘MK-Ultra’ type operations that were unethical, and like war tend to create more terror. The paradox of using violence exists for the establishment as well as rebels. Very mathematical and scientific geniuses like Ted might have pre-existing mental health problems, but they need help rather than competitive character assassination which must lead to bodily incarceration or assassination. Despite their terrible methods, often terrorist rebels feel they are fighting for moral social or environmental justice. Their desire to do good can be encouraged with treatment, rather than pushed by further abuse or neglect. Hurting other humans tends to be less successful for defending causes, than non-violent civil disobedience protests and artistic expressions. 

SCOD theory favors peace and art not only as radical tools for social change, but also as parts of the utopian vision with which we would solve our problems and replace our systemic terror. The sadness of not being able to show your work to enough people to have a network of patrons, or the fear of not being worthy enough to do what you love are symptoms of a system that keeps us at perpetual war and in debt rather than free. Greater freedom means having more control over our own individual lives, and less dependent on the whims of others for the basics of life in civilization. The role of good democratic governments is to be run by the people, for the people. These reasons are why we like leaders like FDR (WW2 militancy aside), MLK, and Bernie Sanders. Environmental activist groups like Green Peace, ELF, Extinction Rebellion, and Sea Shepherd are disruptive so they make a social impact, but do not kill people.

Our corporate MIC (Military Industrial Complex) has our system so rigged, that paid players remove any real democratic opposition as ‘foreign influence’ aka ‘enemies of the state’ of the ‘War on Terror’ or the ‘NEW RED SCARE’. Our system bosses do not tolerate real change from third parties like the Green Party, because peace or environmental progress would reduce corruption. Corporate MIC propaganda war is a real problem.

Trump was a convenient democratic-republic glitch for corporations, as the system sometimes gets the ‘greater of two evils’ into office (see also Nixon, Reagan, and Bush I & II). Trump’s presidency was a result mostly of the corporate influenced electoral college and Hillary Clinton-DNC primary fraud. Corporate agents blame Russia for the Clinton-DNC emails getting leaked, but it was what was in the emails that turned blue states red (see WV and MI). Many voters hated Hillary Clinton so much that they voted for Trump, because at least he promised some of the liberal Bernie Sanders type changes (fighting corruption, universal health-care, and less wars). The obvious difference between Bernie Sanders and Trump is that Sanders has a successful record of fighting for populist positions like union worker rights over corporate profit; the campaign difference crucially enabled by grass-roots funding rather than corporate funding.

 The only way to hold the establishment accountable, is if you are not beholden to the criminals in power. The system usually removes peaceful potential threats like Tulsi Gabbard with smears, when they are too much against the MIC, and have too much credibility (Tulsi is an elected representative and veteran soldier), and tend to take assassination steps (foreign and domestic) when they have made too much change already (see history of CIA foreign coups, and the problematic Malcom-X, MLK, JFK, RFK cases). The Peace movement is not allowed to gain too much ground, because war is a racket for profit. People are beginning to see through the propaganda, I do not feel as alone anymore, from all the outlets I hear.

One famous example of internal change which can affect systemic change, is Dicken’s ‘Christmas Carol’. The main motivation which Scrooge will struggle with everyday after his Christmas morning revelation of joyful good-will, is his memory of the shocking awareness of self-made torture and terror that a snobbish demon of hell can be oblivious to otherwise. Religions tend to use both redemptive allegory (Jesus) and mythology (Revelation). Armageddon apocalypse mythologies are cyclical in that religions describe a ‘heavenly’ utopian life after death, before or after the next time a god decides to use their graceful warriors against their enemies. The Bible may promise eternal bliss, but it is quite clear that God can change his mind about promises if ‘Satan’ interferes (see Job). Although the ‘Beast’ may be defeated during one great war, it is clear that angels can fall from grace and become devils and demons who disobey. We have only one famous example, but how often it happens or what restrictions there may be in place at a later time are not at all clear. The Norse great apocalyptic war ‘Ragnarok’ is more clear about this wave pattern of decline and climax. The viking warriors believed that they must fight and die to go to the great hall (Valhalla) of Heaven (Asgard), where they would await the final battle of the gods after death, and the cycle of humans fighting and dying, and fighting as legendary deities would repeat again forever.

 

If we are the surviving minority, how would we make things better? How would our ‘good’ story of humanity resolve the problems of today in the future? Is it possible to have realistic and happy futurist visions?? I hope so.

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[ Audio Recording of Essay ]

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Corporate Media Addiction

Posted in Commercial Corporations, Cooperative collaboration, Cooperatives / Communities / Networks / Travels, Critical Commentary of Civilization, Ethics & Morals, Multimedia Communication, news, POB Audio, POB Video, Politics, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 24, 2020 by Drogo

Do you have a loved one addicted to corporate media?

There is independent help available. [ SCODcast Audio Recording ]

This article is based on personal left-wing beliefs, supported by recent independent media Youtube channels. My primary premise for choosing channels that reflect my ethics are because it was impossible to find main-stream media support for the popular peace, civil rights, or environmental movements. Now that they are available, and even PBS and NPR are exposing their corporate bias, we have more options to get news and journalism and opinions which are better alternatives. My favorite daily ‘liberal’ media outlets are: Democracy Now!, Democracy At Work, The Ring of Fire, Kyle Kulinski, Humanist Report, Jimmy Dore, Kim Iverson, Redacted Tonight, The Real News, Joe Rogan, the Grayzone, Status Coup, and TYT (The Young Turks). TYT is one of the most influential networks, because they have funded many associates due to strong bold leadership from founder Cenk Uygur; who has also co-created ‘Justice Democrats’ (AOC and ‘The Squad’) and ‘Wolf Pack’ (get money out of politics). Some corporate shows (hosted by progressive liberal comedians like Cavett, Stewart, and Colbert) were able to entertain by pushing boundary issues in the name of getting laughs.

MSNBC, CNN, and other main-stream neo-liberal channels (stations) and newspapers are as saturated as Fox News by corporate propaganda at this point with their war on Bernie Sanders. They have always been centrist leaning for corporate wars, pollution, health-care, but on civil rights at least they were better than Fox; however now they are calling an anti-fascist leader a Nazi, which is obviously absurd. They are blatantly attacking the peace and environmental movements by speaking against our strongest leader. It is sad there is no main-stream outlet for a better future except for Bernie Sanders; but Sanders does represent the totality of liberal alternative visions for a stronger democracy and humanist America. Seeing them react so negatively when a civil rights leader becomes popular, exposes how serious they were about undermining leaders like Sanders from emerging in the first place. As Malcom-X said “The chickens have come home to roost.”

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) central bank said (‘The Green Swan’ paper) that climate-related events could be the source of the next financial crisis. The increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events could trigger non-linear and irreversible financial losses. In turn, the immediate and system-wide transition required to fight climate change could have far-reaching effects potentially affecting every single agent in the economy and every single asset price.

At Davos ‘Wall Street’ banks discussed how climate change alters the conversation around what economic growth can be, and how ‘policy-makers’ should pursue this end. “Debt, inequality and environmental damage are major issues for growth sustainability,” said economists at Deutsche Bank in a note last week. “However, one could argue that the first two are cyclical, whereas the third is potentially structural.” Deutsche Bank adds that, “The problem for the environmental lobby is that a world without economic growth may create a damaging backlash against such climate policies. Nevertheless, the problem with the status quo is that the irreversible damage to our planet will increase.”

Corporate media has been brain-washing most people to think the opposite of the populist reality however, and may help people to continue voting against their own interests for fake candidates that are always the lesser of two evils, rather than a legitimate candidate. It is worth noting that recently in elections their attempts backfire, and voters react by doing the opposite of what corporations want (2016 general and 2020 DNC Primary). The corporate DNC (Democrat Party National Committee) does not even need our over-paid top secret agencies to intervene for the establishment, because they steal the elections for corporations openly and legally in public, and with the help of commercial conditioning they even sway the popular vote. As a reminder to anyone who wants evidence of DNC rigging please reference the 2016 fallout: Jordan Chariton vs Donna Brazile, WV and MI voters chose Bernie unanimously and then voted for Trump, the Hillary Clinton email and DNC server scandal that revealed the rigging, and the DNC lawsuit where they basically stated on record “The DNC is allowed to make decisions that break its own rules, and we will do back-room deals anytime we want for the sake of our rich corporate donors”.

Corporate centrists argue “no reason to try things that will be defeated by republicans, because conservatives have all the power”, but the Obama message of “Yes we can!” is what leads and wins for populist causes (even though his policies were 1980s style republican according to Obama himself). Progress means pushing social boundaries, thus the name “progressive”. So it will be interesting to see how those the conservative corporate democrats (who think they are more practical) behave the more that Bernie wins. Is there a tipping point for many of them with money or social influence, if they have no personal integrity? How much corporate media addicts sell out to corporate interests is an interesting study. I think there is enough support for popular left ideas now to take over the DNC and replace the leaders, and those behind the times will either go to the republicans, as that party reforms after Trump, or get behind the civil rights movements our platform claims. The NEW GREEN DEAL is now a mainstream liberal political policy for implementation; if only corporate power can be checked.

There are a few things we can do to help those loved ones who cannot make the change for themselves, from corporate to independent parties or grassroots collective networks. The first thing is to play alternative forms of media for them; nice recordings of music they like, movies without commercials (Netflix), games, or local or online social groups. Next convince them to cancel their subscription to commercial cable TV and newspapers, at least for a trial period. Show them it is ok to let go of one habit, and replace it with a less destructive and more educational outlet. Finally show them you care by rewarding their cooperation with affection and gifts. Tell them over and over that they are not alone, and you love them.

BERNIE BEATS TRUMP!

Posted in Commercial Corporations, Ethics & Morals, news, Politics, SCOD Online School, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 18, 2020 by Drogo

The reasons why Bernie is the only viable candidate to beat Trump, are the reasons why corporations hate Bernie the most. 

Bernie Sanders beats Trump (if Bernie were allowed to run by the DNC and the electoral college and supreme courts did not over-ride popular votes). This thesis statement is based on my ‘SCOD Politics 101’ class I have been teaching for free by sharing my research work since 2016. When Trump won I seriously began studying political-economic history and theory. So to explain my statement to those who have not been attending class because they have been busy with work and watching corporate media, I will discuss my class content and grading policy briefly.

Recent years have been a class on politics 101 for in depth reporting on the DNC by youtube progressive journalists (because the corporate media never did it). I do not mind trying to teach it as a free scod course, because it is exciting to me that more information is available, despite the New Red Scare. If you still believe that the DNC cares about beating Trump with a candidate who will reduce war, pollution, and corruption you are not paying attention and comments that support corporate candidates will get an F. Corporate candidates who are like Trump in greed but are more polite fail, because they cannot beat Trump and offer no significant change. Would most people be a better president than Trump? Yes, but the DNC is paid about the same as republicans by corporations to not resist substantially, because they are complicit with war crimes and national and planetary theft. I was giving out D’s for those not caught up about the depth of DNC corruption for the last decade, but now those who turn in late papers with no references to corporate rigging will get Fs. Does this mean that we need to reform our 2-party system with mass popular movements to change the power structures? Yes, voting for the lesser of 2 evils has almost no effect on Climate Change, pollution, corruption, or wars. Corporations prefer Trump over every other candidate, and most importantly Bernie Sanders (who happens to be the only one who can beat Trump if allowed to run against him, and if the popular vote was allowed to count). Our secret agencies and military intelligence have a much larger budget and more control over our system than Russia (see New Red Scare).

Our Pentagon is aware that Climate Change is real and they include it in their operational priorities. However they will continue to wage endless war for corporations who fund them. This is one of the main problems of our current global empire, with bases in other countries and a larger budget than all of them combined. To get a good grade in ‘SCOD Politics 101’, one needs to directly address the existential corporate threats to democracy, our environment, and the history of civilization with substantial critique. Apathetic or defensive apologies for corporate corruption no longer allow for a passing grade in the basics of American politics, because it is not objective or scholarly to deny planetary science regarding our environment. For those attending and doing their own homework too, thank you and keep up the good work!!

Facebook Audio Recording of this Essay [goes into more detail]

Shop as usual Putin puppets! (joke based on the false narrative of the New Red Scare)

 

Davos & The Green Swan 2020

Posted in Climate Change, Commercial Corporations, Economics, news, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 22, 2020 by Drogo

2020 Summary of a ‘Yahoo Finance’ article about the next crash

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) central bank said in a paper titled “The Green Swan” that climate-related events could be the source of the next financial crisis. The increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events could trigger non-linear and irreversible financial losses. In turn, the immediate and system-wide transition required to fight climate change could have far-reaching effects potentially affecting every single agent in the economy and every single asset price.

In last week’s run-up to Davos, at least two Wall Street banks chimed in on how climate change alters the conversation around what economic growth can be and how policymakers should pursue this end. “Debt, inequality and environmental damage are major issues for growth sustainability,” said economists at Deutsche Bank in a note last week. “However, one could argue that the first two are cyclical whereas the third is potentially structural.” Deutsche Bank adds that, “The problem for the environmental lobby is that a world without economic growth may create a damaging backlash against such climate policies. Nevertheless, the problem with the status quo is that the irreversible damage to our planet will increase.”

On the one hand, modern civilization is screwed. On the other hand, modern civilization is screwed.

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See ‘Why Economists Worry’ By Myles Udland, reporter and co-anchor of The Final Round. January 22, 2020

May we declare Peace more than War

Posted in Cooperative collaboration, Ethics & Morals, Military, news, relationships, Sustainability, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 9, 2020 by Drogo

May we declare Peace more than War.

This is our SCOD prayer for 2020.

Most times any first world government declares war, it is MIC propaganda based to benefit war profiteers not the people of the country. People don’t learn from history enough to fix the cultural instincts that allow leaders to lead us into wars. It is not brave to constantly threaten others; bad neighbors do that all the time when they do not take time to communicate in good ways. We would have more peace if we were not so quick to be fooled by greedy rich people who profit from war. We do not have more peace or freedom declaring constant war against natives in other countries, as more of our poor are forced to live under martial law to pay their debts. We can barely sustain the peace and freedom we have by selling out ethically and economically to the MIC, because they want our money for health care and infrastructure and arts to pay for their military industrial products. We need to fix our own countries from within, not try to change everyone else’s country for us.

Fuck war hawks 007-style, no more lies for war. Take some time to think about what peace is everyday, and if you can’t then fuck yourself. It is easy to be stupid about things we do not study, in both war and peace.

Trump killing the Iran general was stupid because 1. We need to declare peace and get our military out of the middle east, which that general was helping to do. 2. We need to let Iran continue to fight ISIL, as that general was best known for fighting terrorists. 3. Declaring war based on lies will be added to all the other times our MIC lied us into endless wars. 4. The Iraq leaders we put in power are pissed at us now, and that general never attacked our military or civilians (maybe a mercenary was killed is the most i have heard). 5. This may force Iran to pursue a nuclear program like North Korea to deter our aggression in their area (Wilkerson’s main concern).

Imagine if Russia just bombed a Mexican airport to kill one of our generals who was trying to solve the immigration crisis. How would we take it? Is that behavior acceptable? The “quagmire” of our involvement in endless war in the middle east has a long and twisted history. Our CIA and Pentagon have been working against both Iran and Iraq for years. In modern history our CIA overthrew the Iranian government and supported Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war; then we went to war with Iraq twice. 

“The 1953 Iranian ’28 Mordad’ coup d’état was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi; orchestrated by the US (Operation Ajax) and the UK (Operation Boot). After the 1968 Ba’athist coup Iraq fell into the Soviet sphere of influence, so the CIA colluded with Iran to destabilize Iraq by arming Kurdish rebels. Beginning in 1982, the CIA began providing Iraq intelligence during the Iran–Iraq War. Donald Rumsfeld met Saddām in 1983 and 1984, when the UN reported that Iraq had used chemical attacks against Iranian troops. The NY Times reported that “American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name. In 1984, the CIA “established a formal intelligence liaison” with the Mukhabarat, which provided the CIA with information on terrorist groups including the Abu Nidal Organization. However, there was a delay between the CIA’s provision of intelligence to the Mukhabarat and that intelligence being received and analyzed by the Iraqi military, which resulted in much of it not being actionable. Therefore, the CIA eventually began working directly with Iraqi military intelligence, thereby negating its leverage on Iraqi-sponsored terrorism. In 1988, during the waning days of Iraq’s war with Iran, the US learned through satellite imagery that Iran was about to gain a major strategic advantage by exploiting a hole in Iraqi defenses. US intelligence officials conveyed the location of the Iranian troops to Iraq, fully aware that Hussein’s military would attack with chemical weapons, including sarin, a lethal nerve agent. The CIA was also involved in the failed 1996 coup against Saddam Hussein.” – Wikipedia

“It’s a pity both sides can’t lose (commenting on Iran-Iraq war, 1980 – 1988)” ― Henry Kissinger

It is not isolationist to declare peace and work both internally and together, it is humanist.

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Response to ‘May we Declare peace more than war” –

“But… in order to “declare peace” don’t you first have to have war? #pedantic (beamer)

In the most common black or white sense, yes. But others can declare war, while others sue for peace. so for example 2 sides declare mutual war, and a third mediator like Picard or Druids can declare Peace, and in fact must to force negotiations. but yes the war declarations still exist previously in the standard definition types.

However the issue of having to declare war seems to take for granted that we are always in peace, like during long cold wars where tensions are called war, one side could declare peace with signs and gifts of good will more often than is currently standard practice perhaps. whether we need to have the other to declare the other, depends on the “state” condition perspective.

To me the role reversal that questions the nature of war and peace, is “peace has broken out”! Qhile ceasefires and treaties have been celebrated as declarations of peace, we rarely hear that peace has broken out, only war breaks out, so peace is more like a purgatory reality (war being hell) instead of a paradise reality.

The monty python use of “peace has broken out” got me questioning the use of the term peace more as a news announcement. Since i began studying Roman history i always wondered about the Pax Romana architecture celebrations after military victories, as really being celebrations of aggressive authority peace keeping by violent wars.

Peace being used as a default ignores the threat and actions of violence by authority who are the ‘peace keepers’ and can initiate violence which can be blamed on the rebels or poor who are homeless and loitering. so to me peace could break out on a calm street in nazi germany for example; where it was business as usual with no immediate violence, but suddenly people were nicer and giving flowers and the police threw away their weapons. this ridiculous example would be ‘peace breaking out on an otherwise mundane busy day’; now whether peace is more calm or active is another question too.

 

“Battles are being fought today in the shadow of impending peace looming over the battle fields like some grim specter of gentleness and caring.” – Beamer